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Items tagged with Academic Support


  • 2019 American Inns of Court Warren E. Burger Prize Promotional Poster


    Submission: Interested authors are asked to submit an original, unpublished essay of 10,000 to 20,000 words on a topic that addresses issues of legal excellence, civility, ethics, and professionalism. 

    Prize: $5,000 and the essay will be published in the South Carolina Law Review

    Due: July 1, 2019.

  • Notre Dame Law School Smith-Doheny Legal Ethics Writing Competition


    Sponsor: Notre Dame Law School 

    Issue: Any issue within the general category of legal ethics. 

    Submission: Entries must not exceed 50 pages and must include cover letter with contact information and name of current law school. A prize of $2,500 will be awarded for one winning entry. 

    Due Date: All entries must be received before 5 P.M., Friday, April 26, 2019. 


  • 2019 Ed Mendrzycki Essay Contest 


    Sponsor: The ABA Standing Committee on Lawyers’ Professional Liability, Long & Levit LLP, and Law Students and Young Lawyers. 
    Dates: Postmark Deadline: February 15, 2019 

    N/A. Visit


    I vividly remember the first time I was called on in law school.  It was Contracts class.  I do not remember anything about it other than which class it was, and the fact that my anxiety was so sky-rocket high, that it seemed like I was called on for the entire class.  The reality?  He probably asked me two questions at the most. 

    But the anxiety of being called on in class and the stress over “sounding stupid” in class can take on a life of its own and literally take over your purpose in preparing for class.  Now that almost all of you have been called on in at least one of your classes, remember this: you survived.  Let go of the anxiety about being called on in class.  Replace as your purpose for preparing for class learning the meaning of the subject matter. 

    Here are some tips to help you become more confident in class:

    • After reading and briefing (or taking notes if material other than cases is assigned), take a few minutes to synthesize your reading.  Then out loud explain the reading to an empty chair, your pet, or an understanding friend.  Think of the professor’s usual questions and answer them out loud.  You can practice your answers and gain confidence by this recitation step.
    • When the professor asks a question in class, answer silently in your head.  Then compare your answer to what another student says.  Listen to the professor’s feedback.  You will probably find that you would have answered the question well.  Again, your self-confidence should get a boost from this exercise.
    • Gain additional practice voicing your opinions, questions, and answers by talking in your study group more than usual, talking with a classmate about the material, participating in student organization meetings, or asking the professor questions in office hours.  The more you talk, the less apprehensive you will be.    

    It doesn’t matter how well you did on your fall exams: second semester exhaustion happens across the spectrum. Students who did well are scared that they can’t keep up their grades and any drop in their GPA will reflect on them poorly during summer OCI; students who did not do well are exhausted because they worked very hard during the fall, and they are demoralized by their performance; and students in the middle of the curve are still mystified by the process and don’t know what they can do to bring up their grades.  

    I want to reassure you that you will be fine, and it is okay to feel less excited and more tired during the second semester than you felt during the first.  But here are some tips for staying on track (even if tired):

    1. Continue to do your reading and brief your cases.  This semester, briefing should come easier to you immediately.  If you found yourself reading, highlighting, taking margin notes, and briefing last semester, stop doing that this semester.  Only take one kind of notes – the kind that works for you.  I personally believe that by your second semester, briefing is the only thing you need to do.  How much did you review your highlights or margin notes after that class last semester?  Probably none.  So do the type of note taking that actually aids you in outlining for your classes.
    2. Within 24 hours of every class, take 10 minutes to review and revise your notes.  Think about how much easier outlining will be if you have already reviewed and cleaned up your notes.
    3. During the review of the notes, if you don’t understand something, go to the professor’s office hours.  Your question will be well thought-out, and timely.
    4. In each class, after the end of a major topic, outline that major topic!  Last semester, you could not effectively outline until mid-October.  That’s not true this semester.  You now understand law school exams and what you need for them.  Begin outlining in every single class as soon as the professor finishes a major topic.
    5. Fill your calendar now with everything, from studying, to outlining, to taking practice exams, to the personal stuff.
    6. Most significantly, if you were not happy with your grades last semester, make sure to do as many practice exams as possible this semester right before exams.  Bring them to me and we can review them together.
  • Read the instructions! 

    This may seem obvious to you, but I cannot stress it enough.  You may get flustered at the start of an exam, and failing to read the instructions can be a consequence.  But your professor may ask you to answer only one of the three questions in the exam, and if you don’t read the instructions, you’ll answer all three!  When the exam starts, take a deep breath, slow yourself down, and read the instructions.


    The first part of any law school exam is a math test. 

    Many of you may think – oh no!  I came to law school to avoid doing math!  But what I mean is that you must look at the amount of time allotted for the question, then consider the number of problems you must resolve in that time, and finally do the math to determine how much time you have per question and per issue.  Do not forget to do the math for multiple choice exams as well.  Remember, unless the instructions indicate otherwise, each multiple choice questions is worth exactly the same amount as the next multiple choice questions.  So, spending more time than you have on any one question does not make any sense.


    You will be nervous when the examination proctor says “begin,” but don’t just start to write. 

    Instead, in a closed-book examination, consider writing out your skeletal outline as soon as the exam begins.  A skeletal outline is merely an organized list of principles and issues, created by you, which relates to a given area of the law.  Think about the outline you have been creating all semester, but now reduce it down to a page or two – this is your skeletal outline.  Writing out this list will give a few moments to compose your thoughts before digging into the exam.


    Before answering an essay question, first outline and organize your response. 

    While different students outline differently, students who perform well on law school exams take the time to read through the entire essay question, create a list of the various issues contained therein, and then take a few more minutes to separate out the major issues from the minor ones.  This approach will give you a better sense of how much time you have to complete your entire answer.


    You cannot perform legal analysis without discussing the facts. 

    There are few absolutes in law school, but including the facts in your answer to essay questions is one of them.  Remember, most law school essay questions are written in the form of a lengthy fact pattern or story.  The facts within these stories create the issues that you must discuss.  Almost every fact in these stories must be reproduced and discussed in your examination answer.  While it is true that your professors will know the facts in the problem, they do not know whether you understand which facts are relevant to resolving each issue.  Including the facts in your answer does not guarantee success on your law school exams, but excluding the facts guarantees that you will perform below your capabilities.


    To ensure that the facts are making their way into your essay answers, place a line through each fact as you use it. 

    Do not cross the fact out so that it becomes illegible, however, because a single fact may be relevant to more than one issue.  After you finish your essay answer, look back at the fact pattern.  If there are facts left over, one of three things has occurred:

    1. The facts are truly irrelevant and do not need to be discussed (unlikely!)
    2. The facts are relevant to an issue or issues that you have already discussed; or 
    3. The facts are relevant to an issue that you have not addressed at all.

    As for supposedly irrelevant facts, professors rarely place information into their fact patterns that does not need to be discussed.  Most “irrelevant” facts are there so that you can explain why they are irrelevant. 


    Listing facts is not the same thing as discussing them. 

    True legal analysis occurs when you explain to a reader why a fact (or facts) leads to a legal conclusion.  Consider the following examples. 

    Example 1 - John told the plaintiff “I will hit you if you come around here again.”  Therefore, the battery was not imminent.

    Example 2 – John told the plaintiff “I will hit you if you come around here again.” Generally, words alone cannot satisfy the imminence element of an assault.  More specifically, these words merely inform the listener that he might be “hit” at some point in the future.  The words “at some point in the future” placed a condition on the plaintiff being struck, which means that the plaintiff might never be struck by John.  The fact that John might never strike the plaintiff means that the battery cannot be imminent.


    If you were not sure, example 2 is the better answer!  I have created a somewhat obvious example to illustrate my point.  The pattern in the second example – note a fact (or facts) and then explain why you have brought it to the reader’s attention – consistently appears in well done legal analysis.


    Your analysis is the most important thing that goes into a law school exam, so make sure it is in there! 

    Much of what you will write when answering a law school exam has originated in places other than in your mind.  The issues you will be dissecting were created by your professors and are contained within the examination fact patterns.  The same is true of the facts you will be discussing in your answer; they were created by your professor.  The law you will be relying on to resolve these issues originated in the cases and statutes you read during the course of the semester.  The only part of an essay answer unique to you is your commentary on WHY certain facts lead you to believe that a legal issue should be resolved in a particular way.  This commentary is legal analysis.


    Analyze each element of the relevant causes of action in your examination answer. 

    • For example, an Assault is often defined as the intentional placement of another in apprehension of an imminent battery.  If the fact pattern on your torts exam raises the possibility of “A” assaulting “B,” then you MUST address all the elements of an assault.  Was the defendant’s conduct intentional, was the plaintiff placed in apprehension, and was that apprehension of an imminent battery?  While you must address all of these elements, the depth of your analysis regarding each element will depend on the complexity of the problem. 
    • For example, it might be quite obvious that the defendant was acting intentionally, but the real question is whether the plaintiff’s apprehension was of an imminent battery.  In this instance, your analysis of imminence will likely be longer than your analysis of intent.  Forcing yourself to analyze every element will accomplish two things: (1) it will let the professor know that you understand that every element of a cause of action must be proven; and (2) it will force you to consider whether each element has been satisfied, thus avoiding the mistake of failing to discuss a complex problem that, at least on the surface, seemed quite obvious.  
    • Another way to conceptualize this advice is to consider the I-R-A-C formula many students use when answering examination questions.  In reality, you are writing a mini I-R-A-C for each element of every cause of action being discussed as opposed to a large I-R-A-C of, for example, the tort of assault.


    Objectivity and indecisiveness are not the same thing. 

    When students attempt to perform objective legal analysis, they often fall into the trap of being indecisive as opposed to objective.  When performing objective legal analysis, you must still come to a conclusion.  It’s just that your conclusion is the product of carefully considering all reasonable alternatives.  Telling the reader that a problem could be resolved in two ways, but that the final answer will “depend on what the court thinks” is tantamount to telling the reader “this is hard, so you figure it out!”

    Be sure to address all reasonable alternative points of view. 

    Many students use the I-R-A-C formula when writing the answers to their law school exams.  This formula, which is quite similar to the C-R-E-A-C paradigm you learned in Legal Writing, stands for: state the issue, provide the law, analyze the applicability of the facts to this law, and come to a conclusion.  Because addressing counter arguments is such an important part of legal analysis, the formula might be more accurately written as I-R-A1 (state the argument)-A2 (state any reasonable counterargument)-Conclude, or resolve which argument is better and WHY it is better.  In other words, I-R-A1-A2-C.  So what is a reasonable a counterargument?  A counterargument is reasonable if it is based on the facts in the problem or reasonable inferences from those facts.  If you find yourself creating facts, then the counterargument you are creating is unlikely to be a reasonable one.



    Because anxiety limits working memory, learning how to manage nerves during an exam is key to performing well.  Here are some tips courtesy of the New York Times Education Life Supplement , from University of Chicago psychology professor Sian Beilock.


    Faced with a high-stakes situation, almost everyone has some physical symptoms of stress: sweaty palms, a racing heartbeat. But people interpret these cues differently, with important consequences for their performance.  Some interpret these cues by thinking they are really nervous and that they will fail.  Others will interpret the cues by telling themselves that they are really psyched up for the test. 


    If you fall into the former group, consciously adopt positive self-talk. Remind yourself that damp palms and a pounding heart accompany all kinds of enjoyable experiences: riding a roller coaster, winning a sports match, talking to someone you have a crush on.


    A second approach may be easier for you.  It involves a simple exercise just before a test. For 10 minutes, write about your feelings regarding the exam to clear your mind of test-related concerns, freeing working memory that can be applied to the exam. In a study published last year in the journal Science, Dr. Beilock and her co-author, Gerardo Ramirez, said the technique worked both in the lab and in classrooms. Used by a group of ninth graders facing a biology final, the expressive writing task effectively eliminated the relationship between test anxiety and poor test performance: even highly anxious students performed just as well as non-anxious classmates.  Although the study involved ninth graders, the theory remains the same for any test-taker.

  • Courtesy of the Wall Street Journal:


    After posting the thoughts on what makes a good exam from law professors around the country, the Wall Street Journal thought it prudent to post a sampling of students around the country answering the question: The smartest thing I did while preparing for my 1L first-semester exams was ______.


    Of course, some of these responses might strike you as obvious, others as insightful, others a combination of both.  The Wall Street Journal allowed folks to give names or submit anonymously if they so chose.

    In no particular order, here are a cross-section of responses:

    Rogan Nunn, 3L at UVA and an editor on the Virginia Law Review: By far the most useful thing I did when preparing for 1L exams was to round up a few people from the class and take old exams. Don’t just go through them, take them — pretend it’s the real thing, time limits and all. Then discuss answers. You’d be amazed how much you miss the first time. It can be time-consuming, but all the outlining in the world won’t save you if you can’t spot the issues on the fly.

    Anonymous 3L at Vanderbilt and a member of the Vanderbilt Law Review: For me, the smartest thing I did while studying for exams 1L year was to go through each entire course in successively shorter periods of time… . By successively shortening the amount of time spent thinking through the entire course, the goal was to be able to go quickly through and understand all the material in a couple of minutes — to see both the forest and the trees quickly for the entire course.

    Max Shifrin, 3L at Brooklyn and a member of Brooklyn Law Review: The most crucial thing to do as a 1L, in my opinion, is start outlining early in the semester and finish [your outlines] early enough to take as many practice exams as possible in real time… . [P]rofessors test the exact same things year in and year out. If you do enough exams, you’ll begin to see a pattern which will give you a huge advantage on exam day.

    Anonymous 2L at Columbia, member of the Columbia Law Review: The first time I saw what my Civil Procedure professor expected us to be able to do in three hours I almost had a nervous breakdown. But by taking practice exams and going over answers in a study group, I was able to get a better sense of the material that is frequently tested … . By test day I wasn’t intimidated anymore and could take comfort knowing there weren’t going to be any surprises.

    Anonymous 3L at Vanderbilt, member of the Vanderbilt Law Review: I made sure to get 7-8 hours of sleep every night. The finals period is already an extremely stressful time, and it is most stressful as a 1L. There is no reason to add to this stress by staying up every night until 3 a.m. working; not only does it add to your stress level, it is not as if the extra hours “studying” are actually beneficial, given that your mind can only take so much studying per day before shutting down.

    Megan Murray, 2L at Iowa, member of the Iowa Law Review: [I wrote] out all the “rules” by hand. The act of writing slows your brain down enough to absorb the legal rules, and it gives you time to consider their implication. This is an especially helpful technique when legal rules come in the form of multi-part, or divergent tests. When you read these rules in your notes or type them out on your computer, the words come so quickly across the page that you don’t have time to really absorb and understand them. Writing them out gives your mind a chance to catch up with your keystrokes.

    Anonymous 3L at Berkeley, editor on the California Law Review: Perhaps the most important (and most difficult) advice is that you need to move on when the exam is over, either to prepping for your next exam, having a beer, or just generally getting on with your life. You might feel tempted to talk to your classmates about the exam, perhaps because you have nothing else to talk about (as your life of late was probably consumed with studying). Avoid this at all costs; at best you get affirmation in your answers (which could still be wrong), but at worst your start worrying that you missed something, which at this point is totally out of your control… . From my own experience and my friends, taking a law school exam can be defeating and leave students with the feeling that their days of studying were not properly translated to the answer they cranked out in three hours. Try your best not to dwell on those feelings.


  • Courtesy of the Wall Street Journal Law Blog:


    What Makes a Good Law School Exam Answer? Law Profs Weigh In


    We checked in with a handful of professors around the country and asked them to complete the following sentence: “A good law exam answer is _______.”

    Of course, none of these responses will, alone, unlock the key to success. And an A exam to one might be a B plus to someone else. But taken collectively, they just might shed some light on what the Great Professoriate is looking for. So here goes.


    Heather Gerken, Yale: A good law exam answer is … evaluative. Too often, students walk through each answer as if all arguments are created equal. They don’t tell me which arguments are strong and which are weak, which facts matter and which don’t, which cases provide strong support for their claims and which ones are distinguishable. And they throw everything into the answer rather than think hard about what belongs and what doesn’t. Good lawyers don’t just know the substantive law; they also have good legal judgment. The mistake students make is not to exercise their own legal judgment in answering a question.


    Richard Friedman, Michigan: A good law exam answer … answers the question. Banal as that sounds, many students take the question as an excuse to write a canned answer on some area in which they’ve learned the black-letter law. I tell my students, “Imagine you’re riding down an elevator with a boss who knows the law and who has told you the facts but wants your help in advising the client. Don’t repeat the facts to him. Don’t tell him the law. Apply the law to the facts.”


    Eric Chiappinelli, Creighton: A good law exam answer … is one that does more than tells me what the law is (more or less well) and applies the law to the facts (more or less well) and then stops. The other 90 anonymous answers will do that. You should do two additional things: Tell me up front what the question really turns on – a choice between two applicable rules? Deciding what a particular word or phrase should mean? Then, at the end, give me your opinion of whether the result is good or fair or just. Cutting to the heart of a question immediately and expressing a value judgment about the result are what separate the A’s from the C’s.


    Paul Secunda: Marquette: A good law exam answer … gets to maybe. By that I mean that too many law students have an undergraduate mentality and seek to figure out the one “right” answer for the question. The point of the law school exam is not necessarily to test for right and wrong answers, but to see whether the student is utilizing critical reasoning skills to understand all the possible issues that the question presents. The more you arrive at a “maybe” in your law exam, the more likely you are seeing all the sides of the question in your answer and will then receive the most exam points.”


    Adam Winkler, UCLA: A good law exam answer … is rigorous and deep. By rigorous, I mean it references every applicable standard, test, and burden; analyzes every appropriate “branch” in the decision tree; and follows a sound logical structure. By deep, I mean it argues — not just concludes — how the legal rules apply to the facts; analogizes and distinguishes the most relevant cases; and addresses the best counterarguments. There is no “right” answer. It’s all about the argument.


    These tips are not in any particular order as to priority. 

    • Break every task down into small steps.  It is easier to motivate yourself to complete a small task.  You will feel less stressed about the progress you are making because small tasks will get crossed off your list more quickly.
    • Get assistance from others when you are confused about course material.  Go to your professors during office hours.  Go to your Morris Fellow or Littleton Fellow.  Ask questions of classmates who understand the material.  Work with a study partner or group to review material.
    • After you have intensely reviewed a major topic in the outline and you have done practice questions, condense that portion of the outline by at least half.  Start a second document that is the condensed outline so that the longer version is never lost.
    • Approximately one - two weeks before the exam, condense the entire outline to 5-10 pages of essentials for the material so far.  The essentials will bring back the more detailed information if the material has been studied properly.  Use the condensed outline to recall the information. 
    • Condense the shorter outline again to the front and back of a sheet of paper.  This condensed version can be memorized as a checklist for a closed-book exam.  When the proctor in the exam tells you to begin, quickly write your checklist on scrap paper and use it as a guide throughout the exam. 
    • Do practice exams as soon as you have completed your outline for the course (and even if you have not, still do practice exams).  Do the practice exams under time pressure and stick to the exact time allotted by the professor for each question.  The more questions you do, the more confident and less stressed you will be in the exam.  A myriad of fact scenarios during your studying means you will be less likely to meet something on the exam that you have never thought about previously.  And you will be more aware of nuances when applying the law.
    • Realize that the first practice exam will likely make you feel worse.  But that’s fine.  That’s normal.  The first exam is to help you understand how fast three hours goes.  Its purpose is to teach you what you don’t know, not what you do know.  Use that to study from your outline further.  Then practice with another exam.  This exam will go better for you than the first.  But there is still more to learn.  It’s only by about the third or fourth practice exam that you will truly start to get better and faster.
    • Become an even nicer person.  You will feel better about yourself and lower your stress if you focus on others rather than yourself.  Help another student who doesn’t understand a topic.  Take cookies to your study group.  Volunteer in class when another student is floundering in answering a question.
  • Stress and anxiety are increasing as the semester reaches the halfway point.  Some of you may not be sleeping well, feel that you cannot focus, procrastinate and feel guilty about our academics.  You may feel that everyone else “gets it” when you don’t.  Or you are so behind in your reading that you cannot catch up.  Or that you are not paying enough attention to those outside of law school.  Or that you’ll simply never understand the subjects. 

    Instead of accepting this negativity, rebut it and refuse to blindly accept it as true.  The rebuttal should take a more positive position and determine a strategy to resolve any problem.  Examples of rebuttals to the negative self-talk above might be:

    • Realistically, I am not the only person who is confused.  I can get clarification from my professor/Littleton Fellow, Morris Fellow/study group by asking questions.
    • I am behind in my reading and have a strategy for catching up.  I’ll stay current with my new reading and slip in back reading one case at a time next week.
    • I am not a bad person.  I am balancing my time between school and personal obligations.  My family members and friends understand the importance of school.
    • This course is hard, but I can learn it.  I will spend some time today writing down my questions and talking to my professor.

    There are other actions that can also assist in dealing with negativity in one’s outlook.  By following some simple steps, life begins to look less awful:

    • Get enough sleep.  At least 7 hours.  With appropriate rest, our brains are more alert and productive.  And problems do not seem as overwhelming.
    • Exercise.  Exercise is one of the best stress busters. 
    • Eat nutritious meals.  Our bodies and brains perform better when we include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meat or fish in our diets.  Junk food, sugary snacks and drinks, caffeine, and processed foods provide less nutrition.  And skipping meals is total no-no! 
    • Surround yourself with positive people.  Avoid fellow students who are complaining, moaning, and groaning.  You can take on their negativity if you are not careful.
    • Break larger tasks into very small steps.  You will feel more motivated and confident about completing a small step when the larger task seems too overwhelming.
    • Remember that you are the same very bright and capable person who entered law school.  You are dealing with challenging material and are among others who are equally bright.  If you use the many resources available to you, you can learn more efficient and effective strategies for your studies that will help you succeed.
    • Seek medical advice if necessary.  If the negativity makes you ill or turns into depression, go to a doctor or counselor for assistance.
  • “I chose Penn Law for public interest because I want to be the best lawyer I can be. Penn Law offered the best combination of academic excellence, diversity of opportunity and support for public interest lawyering. After I visited, my choice was made even easier. I found out that not only did Penn Law win all my computational analyses, it won on a deeper level as well. I knew, with great certainty, that TPIC cared about me.”

    -Emily Turner, JD 2015