Participant Bios

Brigadier General Thomas Ayres
Brigadier General Tom Ayres serves as the Assistant Judge Advocate General (JAG) for Military Law and Operations, U.S. Army in the Pentagon. From January 2008 to April 2009, he served as the lead operational attorney for combat forces in Iraq. Previously, he served as the lead attorney for the 82nd Airborne Division during initial stages of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom in Afghanistan and Iraq, and as Deputy Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He began his Army career as an infantry officer in Italy and later served as chief prosecutor at Fort Stewart, Georgia and as an environmental litigator in Washington, D.C. Brigadier General Ayres attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and received his law degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1991. His awards include the Bronze Star with two Oak Leaf Clusters and the Master Parachutist Badge.

Sabah J. Al-Bawi
Dr. Sabah J. Al-Bawi heads the Office of Legislative Drafting in Baghdad, where he acts as Legislative Drafter of the Constitutional Review Committee for the Iraqi Council of Representatives. Al-Bawi serves as a legal trainer on issues of constitutional & legislative affairs, with specific attention to the Iraqi Provincial Councils and newly elected representatives of the Parliament. He has conducted extensive legislative research related to the new Iraqi Constitution and legal system. Al-Bawi was a lecturer at Salahaddin University in the Kurdistan region of Iraq from 1999-2006. He holds a PhD in Constitutional Law & Political Systems.

Cary Coglianese
Cary Coglianese is the Edward B. Shils Professor of Law, Director of the Penn Program on Regulation, and a Professor of Political Science. He specializes in the study of regulation and regulatory processes, with a particular emphasis on the empirical evaluation of alternative regulatory strategies and the role of conflict and cooperation in business-government relations. His recent books include, Import Safety: Regulatory Governance in the Global Economy; Regulation and Regulatory Processes; and Leveraging the Private Sector: Management-Based Strategies for Improving Environmental Performance. He has also recently writtenon climate change policy, public participation and transparency in federal rulemaking, and voluntaryenvironmental programs. Coglianese was a founding editor of the peer-reviewed journal Regulation &Governance. Cary Coglianese was awarded three degrees from the University of Michigan: a PhD inPolitical Science (1994), JD from the School of Law (1991), and MPP in Public Policy (1991).

Robert Cusumano
Robert F. Cusumano was appointed General Counsel and Secretary of ACE in March 2005. Cusumano joined ACE from the international law firm of Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, where he was a partner and a member of the firm's Litigation Department from 2003 to 2005. Prior to this time, Mr. Cusumano was a partner with the law firm of Simpson Thatcher and Bartlett. As General Counsel for ACE Unlimited, Bob Cusumano has ultimate responsibility for all legal support to the ACE Group. He also serves as principal counsel to ACE Limited's senior leadership and has executive oversight for ACE's external affairs operations in Washington DC. Robert Cusumano earned his law degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1980.

Jacques deLisle
Jacques deLisle is the Stephen A. Cozen Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania. His research and teaching focus on contemporary Chinese law and politics. Specific interests include legal reform and its relationship to economic reform and political change in China, the international status of Taiwan and cross-Strait relations, China's engagement with the international order, legal and political issues in Hong Kong's reversion to Chinese rule and post-reversion Hong Kong, and aspects of U.S.-China relations.  His writings on these subjects appear in a variety of fora, including international relations journals, edited volumes of multidisciplinary scholarship, Asian studies journals, as well as law reviews. DeLisle is director of the Center for East Asian Studies at Penn and director of the Asia Program at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. He was awarded his law degree from Harvard in 1990.

Eric Feldman
Eric Feldman is the Deputy Dean for International Affairs and a Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania. Feldman's expertise is in Japanese law, comparative public health law, and law and society. His books and articles explore the comparative dimensions of rights, dispute resolution, and legal culture, often in the context of urgent policy issues including the regulation of smoking, HIV/AIDS, and other aspects of the health care system. Feldman has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in Japan, and has also been a Visiting Professor at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques in Paris and at the University of Trento in Italy, as well as a Visiting Scholar at Waseda University's Graduate School of Law in Tokyo. He has received grants and fellowships from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the American Bar Association, the National Science Foundation, and the Social Science Research Council, among others. Prior to joining the Penn Law faculty, he spent five years as the Associate Director of the Institute for Law and Society at New York University. Feldman earned a JD (1989) and a PhD in Jurisprudence & Social Policy (1994) at the University of California, Berkeley.

Dean Michael A. Fitts
Michael A. Fitts is the Dean of Penn Law as well as the Bernard G. Segal Professor of Law. Dean Fitts' commitment to interdisciplinary research and teaching is shaping the future of legal education. Under his leadership, Penn Law has become a national leader in cross-disciplinary legal education, with 30 degree and certificate programs offered in partnership with Wharton, the Medical School, Annenberg and other schools on Penn's campus. During his tenure as dean, Fitts has expanded the size and academic breadth of the standing faculty, bringing more than 25 renowned scholars and promising young intellectuals to Penn Law. Fitts has written on questions of administrative law, presidential power and separation of powers, and has argued for improving the structure of political parties and executive-branch decision making. Fitts is a member of the Law and Political Process Study Group of the American Political Science Association and the Executive Committee of the American Law Deans Association, where he serves as vice president.

Amy E. Gadsden
Dr. Amy Gadsden is Associate Dean and Executive Director for International Programs at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. From 2006-2008, she served as Resident Country Director for China at the International Republican Institute (IRI), a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing democracy worldwide. Prior to that, Dr. Gadsden was Special Advisor for China in the State Department's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. She has worked extensively on joint cooperation projects with Chinese governmental and non-governmental agencies and has done consulting work for the United Nations Development Program, the United Nations High Commissioner's Office for Human Rights, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and the National Committee on US-China Relations. She is a senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) and an Advisory Council member of the Women's Democracy Network (WDN). Dr. Gadsden has a B.A. in History and English from Yale College and a Ph.D. in Chinese history from the University of Pennsylvania.

Andrew Garfield
Andrew Garfield is a Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI). He is also a founding partner of Glevum Associates LLC, a strategic communication consultancy, which specializes in conducting Face-to-Face Research and Analysis in conflict and post conflict societies. Mr. Garfield lectures extensively in the U.S. including for the U.S. Army, National Defense University, and the Naval Post Graduate School. He has worked in information operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Garfield is the U.S. Director of the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) for Defense and Security Studies, and Deputy Director of the International Policy Institute (IPI) at King's College London. He is the former European Director of the Terrorism Research Center as well as a former senior policy advisor at the UK Ministry of Defense. Most recently, he led a joint US-UK study that recommended a new strategy to reform the Afghan National Police and wider Afghan justice sector.

Jason Gluck
Jason Gluck is a Senior Rule of Law Advisor for the US Institute for Peace (USIP) Rule of Law Center of Innovation, where he designs and implements USIP's rule of law projects in Iraq. Gluck is also Director of USIP's Constitution-Making, Peacebuilding, and National Reconciliation Program with a particular focus on federalism, minority rights, and constitutional design. Gluck joined USIP as a rule of law adviser in January 2008. Previously, he was a legal officer and constitutional adviser with the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, where he advised the Council of Representatives during the 2007 constitutional review. He was also a senior program officer with the National Democratic Institute in Iraq, where he worked with the Iraqi Parliament to develop parliamentary institutional and legislative capacity. Gluck received his JD from the University of Michigan and a BA in political science from Northwestern University.

Haider Ala Hamoudi
Haider Ala Hamoudi's scholarship focuses on Middle Eastern and Islamic Law, particularly, but not exclusively, as it pertains to matters of commerce. He has written for numerous law reviews, spoken at conferences, and given interviews to various news organizations. In 2009, Professor Hamoudi was awarded the Hessel Yntema prize by the American Society of Comparative Law for the best article produced in the American Journal of Comparative Law the previous year by an author under the age of 40. From April- December 2009, Professor Hamoudi worked full-time in Baghdad advising the Constitutional Review Committee of the Iraqi legislature, tasked with developing critical amendments to the Iraq Constitution, on behalf of the US Embassy in Baghdad. He also advised on other key pieces of legislation, including a hydrocarbons law, a revenue management law, and an antitrust law. Professor Hamoudi received his B.Sc. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993, with a double major in Physics and Humanities with a Near Eastern Studies Concentration. In 1996, Professor Hamoudi received his J.D. from Columbia Law School, where he was a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar.

Ambassador Feisal Amin Rasoul al-Istrabadi
H.E. Dr. Feisal Amin Rasoul al-Istrabadi currently is on leave as ambassador from the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Baghdad. He served previously as Deputy Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations in New York. Ambassador Al-Istrabadi is a Scholar in International Law and Diplomacy at Indiana University - Bloomington, where he is also Director of the Center for the Study of the Middle East. He was the principal legal drafter of the Iraqi interim constitution, the Transitional Administrative Law. Istrabadi worked under the direction of Dr. Adnan Pachachi, whom he served as legal advisor. He holds a JD from Indiana University - Bloomington, an LLM (with honors) in International Human Rights Law, and an SJD in International Criminal Law from Northwestern University.

Erik Jensen
Erik Jensen is Co-director of the Rule of Law Program at Stanford Law School; a Senior Research Scholar at Stanford's Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law; and Senior Advisor for Governance and Law at the Asia Foundation. Over the last 25 years, he has taught and practiced in the field of law and development in 30 countries, including all of the countries of South Asia. He has been a Fulbright scholar, an advisor to the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, and a representative of The Asia Foundation. He lived in Asia for 14 years, including 6 years in Pakistan where, among other things, he co-authored a long-term development vision in 1997 for then-prime minister Nawaz Sharif. His scholarship and field work are focused on bridging theory and practice. His publications include Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law (2003) and Law and Economy in India (2011).

Lawrence Kent
Larry Kent has served on the National Constitution Center Board of Trustees since September 2004. Presently, he is Vice Chairman and Co-Chair of the Development Committee. Kent is a founding partner of Kent & Kent, a private investment firm in Wayne, PA. Prior to founding the firm, he was the founder and chairman of GENEX, a leading disability services company, which he sold in 1994. Prior to that, he served as president of General Rehabilitation Services (GRS) (which he also founded), a workers' compensation management company that merged with General Care Review to form GENEX in 1993. Kent's other board affiliations include: Pennsylvania Horse Racing Commission, 2003-Present; The Kimmel Center, 2003-Present; Chartwell Advisory Group in King of Prussia, 1991-Present; General Healthcare Resources in Plymouth Meeting, 1992-Present; Dickinson College, 2003-2006; Kinetikos Medical in San Diego, 1996-2006; Lights of Liberty, 2000-2005 (Chairman); The MBF Center in Norristown, 1994-2000; Saint Joseph's Preparatory School in Philadelphia, 1994-1999; and Adoptions from the Heart, dates undetermined (Chairman).

Clark Lombardi
Clark Lombardi is Associate Professor of Law at the University of Washington School of Law. A specialist in Islamic law and in constitutional law, he teaches in these areas in addition to courses in federalism, comparative law, and development law. Professor Lombardi's current research and writing have focused on the evolution of Islamic law in contemporary legal systems. He also focuses on comparative judicial institutions and on the way that constitutional systems deal with religious organizations and religious law. Professor Lombardi holds PhD and JD degrees from Columbia University where he focused on Islamic law. At Columbia Law School, he was a James Kent Scholar and editor-in-chief of the Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. From 1999-2000, he clerked for Judge Samuel A. Alito, then on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He practiced law with the firm of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton in New York City, where he specialized in representing sovereigns and in complex transnational commercial matters, often with sovereign participation.

Joseph Lowry
Joseph Lowry is an Assistant Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania. Lowry is a specialist in Islamic law, Arabic literature, and classical Islamic thought. Lowry received his B.A. in 1985 from the University of Washington in Near Eastern Languages. He lived in Cairo for a year before beginning his studies at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, where received a JD in 1990. Dr. Lowry practiced with the D.C. law firm of Patton, Boggs, L.L.P., where he used his Arabic to assist the firm with its representation of several Arab states. Lowry has published articles on Islamic legal theory, medieval and modern Arabic narrative and has authored, among other works, Early Islamic Legal Theory: the Risala of Muhammad Ibn Idris al-Shafi'i. Lowry is the co-editor of Law and Education in Medieval Islam: Studies in Memory of George Makdisi and of Essays in Arabic Literary Biography II: 1350-1850. In addition to his JD, he holds AM and PhD degrees in Islamic Studies from the University of Pennsylvania.

Ann Mayer
Ann Elizabeth Mayer is an Associate Professor of Legal Studies in the Department of Legal Studies and Business Ethics at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Mayer earned a PhD in Middle Eastern History from the University of Michigan in 1978; a JD from the Law School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1975; an MA in Near Eastern Languages and Literatures (Arabic and Persian) from the University of Michigan in 1966. She has written extensively on issues of Islamic law in contemporary legal systems, comparative law, international law, and the problems of integrating international human rights law in domestic legal systems. Mayer has published widely in law reviews and in scholarly journals and texts. Her book, Islam and Human Rights. Tradition and Politics is now in its fourth edition. Her interest in international human rights law encompasses the emergence of new ideas of corporate responsibility under international human rights law and the problems that come with transferring what were formerly state obligations to private actors. A member of the Pennsylvania Bar, she consults widely on cases involving human rights issues and Middle Eastern law.

Ambassador Rend Al-Rahim
A native of Iraq, Ms. Rend Al-Rahim is co-founder and Executive Director of the Iraq Foundation. For over a decade, Ms. Al-Rahim has been active in the Iraqi public arena, in civic leadership, and in human rights advocacy, and is recognized as a leading expert on Iraq. From 2003-2005 she served as Iraq's Representative to the United States and its Chief of Mission. In 2007, Ms. Al-Rahim was awarded a Senior Fellowship at the United States Institute for Peace's Jennings Randolph Program for International Peace. In 2008-2009, she continued with USIP as Senior Fellow for Iraq. Ms. Al-Rahim has contributed to numerous books and publications dealing with Middle East issues, and authored research and policy papers for the Iraq Foundation and for policy and research institutions in the United States. She is the coauthor, with Graham Fuller, of The Arab Shi'a: Forgotten Muslims. Ms. Al-Rahim has testified before the U.S. Congress as an expert on Iraq. She is a frequent commentator on Iraqi affairs in the U.S. and international media and has published op-ed pieces in prominent newspapers and periodicals. Ms. Al-Rahim was educated in Iraq, Lebanon, and the U.K. She holds degrees from Cambridge University and the University of the Sorbonne.

Kermit Roosevelt
Kermit Roosevelt is a Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania. He conducts legal research in a diverse range of fields, focusing on constitutional law and conflict of laws. His latest book, Conflict of Laws (2010) offers an accessible analytical overview of conflicts. His prior book, The Myth of Judicial Activism: Making Sense of Supreme Court Decisions (2006) set out standards by which citizens can determine whetherthe Supreme Court is abusing its authority. His law review articles have been cited twice by the SupremeCourt and numerous times by state and lower federal courts. Roosevelt joined the faculty at Penn Law in2002. Before this time, he was serving as an Associate in appellate litigation at Mayer, Brown, & Platt inChicago. Roosevelt received his JD from Yale in 1997, and his AB from Harvard in 1993.

Sima Samar
Dr. Sima Samar is Chairperson of the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and founder of the Shuhada Organization. She holds a degree in Medicine from Kabul University, and was a practicing doctor in Afghanistan until political realities under the communist regime required her to seek safety in nearby Pakistan. In 1989, Dr. Samar established the Shuhada Organization with the goal of providing health care to Afghan women and girls, as well as training and education for medical staff. After living in refuge for over a decade, Samar returned to Afghanistan in 2002 to assume a cabinet post in the Afghan Transitional Administration led by Hamid Karzai. In the interim government, she served as Deputy President and later as Minister for Women's Affairs, but left the post under threat of physical violence. Samar is widely recognized for her contributions to advancing human rights with a specific focus on women's rights and welfare in Afghanistan, and has received numerous international awards for her work in these areas.

David Tafuri
A Partner at Patton Boggs LLP, David Tafuri recently returned from 15 months in Iraq, where he served as the Department of State's Rule of Law Coordinator for Iraq at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. In that position, he was responsible for advising the U.S. Ambassador and staff on the Iraqi justice system. He designed and managed justice system assistance programs for the U.S. Government and led a joint team of U.S. military and civilian personnel in drafting the strategic plan to strengthen the Iraqi justice system. His professional experience includes prior positions as an aide to the Senate Judiciary Committee and a staff assistant to several presidential and congressional campaigns. Before entering private practice, he worked for the United Nations in Turkey. Tafuri currently represents domestic and foreign companies in commercial transactions, civil litigation, criminal investigations, and mediation and arbitration.

Charles E. Tucker
Major General (Retired) Charles E. Tucker (USAF) is the Executive Director of the International Human Rights Law Institute of DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. For more than 25 years, he has been an international rule of law and humanitarian law practitioner. He served multiple tours of duty with the United Nations in various countries and served as Economic and Legal Adviser for the Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He also served as an International Law Adviser in the Office of the US Secretary of Defense. He has previously acted as Legal Adviser for the US Ambassador in Iraq, as well as for State Department and DOD missions in Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, Central and South America. Tucker has been an Assistant Professor of Law at the US Air Force Academy, as well as Course Director of the Academy's Comparative International Law Program. Mr. Tucker is a 1979 graduate of the University of Notre Dane (BA, Government), a 1982 graduate of the DePaul University College of Law (JD) and a 2003 graduate of the US Air War College.

Ali Wardak
Dr. Ali Wardak is a Reader (Associate Professor) in criminology at the University of Glamorgan, UK, and Vice President of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV). From 2006 to 2008, he worked for the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) in Kabul, and co-authored Afghanistan Human Development Report 2007. Dr Wardak has published widely on criminological and Afghanistan related issues. His publications include, Social Control and Deviance: A South Asian Community in Scotland (2000), Transnational and Comparative Criminology (2005), and Race and Probation (2006). Dr Wardak speaks, reads and writes in Pashto, Dari/Persian, Arabic and English proficiently.