January 31, 2018
In the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States launched initiatives that test the limits of international human rights law. The indefinite detention and torture of detainees at Guantánamo Bay, targeted killing, and mass surveillance require an expansion of executive authority that negates the rule of law.
In Permanent State of Emergency, Ryan Alford establishes that the ongoing failure to address human rights abuses is a symptom of the most serious constitutional crisis in American history. Instead of curbing the increase in executive power, Congress and the courts facilitated the breakdown of the nation’s constitutional order and set the stage for presidential supremacy. The presidency, Alford argues, is now more than imperial: it is an elective dictatorship. Providing both an overview and a systematic analysis of the new regime, he objectively demonstrates that it does not meet even the minimum requirements of the rule of law. At this critical juncture in American democracy, Permanent State of Emergency alerts the public to the structural transformation of the state and reiterates the importance of the constitutional limits of the American presidency.
Please RSVP Here
March 15, 2018
In Unjustifiable Means, Fallon reveals this dark side of the United States government, which threw our own laws and international covenants aside to become a nation that tortured—sanctioned by the highest-ranking members of the Bush Administration, the Army, and the CIA, many of whom still hold government positions, although none have been held accountable. Until now.
Follow along as Fallon pieces together how this shadowy group incrementally—and secretly—loosened the reins on interrogation techniques at Gitmo and later, Abu-Ghraib, and black sites around the world. He recounts how key psychologists disturbingly violated human rights and adopted harsh practices to fit the Bush administration’s objectives even though such tactics proved ineffective, counterproductive, and damaging to our own national security. Fallon untangles the powerful decisions the administration’s legal team—the Bush “War Counsel”—used to provide the cover needed to make torture the modus operandi of the United States government. As Fallon says, “You could clearly see it coming, you could wave your arms and yell, but there wasn’t a damn thing you could do to stop it.”
Unjustifiable Means is hard-hitting, raw, and explosive, and forces the spotlight back on to how America lost its way. Fallon also exposes those responsible for using torture under the guise of national security, as well as those heroes who risked it all to oppose the program. By casting a defining light on one of America’s darkest periods, Mark Fallon weaves a cautionary tale for those who wield the power to reinstate torture.
Please RSVP Here
April 6-7, 2018
Co-sponsored by Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) & Canadian Department of National Defence (DND)
Historically, strategic restraint has been the dominant approach among space faring nations, all of whom understood that continued access to and use of space required holding back on any threats or activities which might jeopardize the status quo of peace in space. However, recently there has been a discernible shift in international rhetoric towards offensive defense in space. China, Russia and the U.S. have deployed various tests in space in recent years, leading to speculation that they all possess anti-satellite weapon (ASAT) capabilities. These tests suggest that there is a move towards weaponization of space, despite the core principle of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty that space shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. In response, a more active stance towards space defense has entered the policy rhetoric of India, Israel and Japan. In response to concerns about the capacities of other players to threaten critical space assets, the U.S. Space Command, U.S. Strategic Command, and the U.S. Air Force Headquarters have been undertaking an assessment to determine how the U.S. Government can gain dominance in the space domain, seeking to develop offensive space control and active defensive strategies and capabilities.
These factors, combined with a lack of transparency about actual capabilities and intentions on the part of all major players in space, creates a cyclical escalation which has led some commentators to describe this as a conceivable return to a Cold War-type arms race, and to the foreseeability of a space-based conflict. Due to many unique characteristics of the space domain, an armed conflict in space would be catastrophic for all players, including neutral States, commercial actors, and international civil society. Yet it is the most technologically advanced States who stand the most to lose from a space-based conflict, due to our high dependence on space, and among these the United States is at the highest risk. The question then arises, how can the U.S. and its allies protect their space assets from being targeted, without contributing to further escalation of an arms race, to increased aggressive policy threats, or to the potential of a space-based conflict? What would ethical leadership require of the U.S.?
There is a critical need for clear representations from States as to their position on national and international law applicable to space, and well-informed policy positions on the emerging weaponization of space. Due to the specificity of the space domain, specialized expertise must be provided to decision-makers, and interdisciplinary opinions must be sought from a multitude of stakeholders. To that end, CERL will host this high-level discussion, which will focus on questions of ethical conduct and standards, while assessing the ways in which the U.S. and other leaders in space can protect their space assets in accordance with the core tenets of the Outer Space Treaty regarding freedom of access to and use of space, and the prohibition on non-peaceful uses of outer space, as well as potential arms control measures, and the unique role that commercial actors play in securing space for sustainable civilian and military uses.
April 19, 2017
The Internationalists tells the story of the Peace Pact by placing it in the long history of international law from the seventeenth century through the present, tracing this rich history through a fascinating and diverse array of lawyers, politicians and intellectuals—Hugo Grotius, Nishi Amane, Salmon Levinson, James Shotwell, Sumner Welles, Carl Schmitt, Hersch Lauterpacht, and Sayyid Qutb. It tells of a centuries-long struggle of ideas over the role of war in a just world order. It details the brutal world of conflict the Peace Pact helped extinguish, and the subsequent era where tariffs and sanctions take the place of tanks and gunships.
The Internationalists examines with renewed appreciation an international system that has outlawed wars of aggression and brought unprecedented stability to the world map. Accessible and gripping, this book will change the way we view the history of the twentieth century—and how we must work together to protect the global order the internationalists fought to make possible.
November 9-10, 2017
Co-hosted by CERL and the Annenberg School for Communication, the roundtable conference will convene academics, analysts, and practitioners from fields as diverse as law, journalism, media, public policy, philosophy, national security, and others to explore some of the most pressing legal and ethical challenges that lie at the nexus of national security and journalism today.
The invitation only conference will be supplemented by a public conversation at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, from 5:00 – 6:30 pm on November 9, 2017, entitled,
Freedom of the Press and National Security in the Era of Trump: Reconciling Competing Values in Democratic Governance
This segment of the two-day “Navigating Law and Ethics at the Crossroads of Journalism and National Security“ conference is open to the public and seat are on a first come/first served basis. Journalists and the government have a shared responsibility to protect the autonomy of the press, to keep the public duly informed, and to ensure accurate coverage of important issues affecting U.S. security. They must also grapple with the competing responsibilities to protect classified information from disclosure and to safeguard the public from deliberate misinformation or “fake news.” A distinguished panel will share and debate views on these issues in a moderated discussion.
Panelists will include: Laura Handman, Esq, Partner Davis Wright Tremaine LLP
James Risen, investigative Journalist, The Intercept and First Look Media; Charlie Savage, Washington Correspondent, The New York Times.
Moderated by: Jeffrey Rosen, President and CEO, National Constitution Center.
Introduction By: Claire Finkelstein, Co-Founder and Faculty Director of CERL, Algernon Biddle Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania
This event is co-sponsored by the Annenberg School for Communication (ASC), the Center for Advanced Research in Global Communication at ASC, the Middle East Center at the University of Pennsylvania, and the law firm of Miller & Chevalier.
November 8, 2017
Dr. Christopher Fuller is a Lecturer in Modern American History, University of
Southampton, U.K. He will be speaking about his book, “See It, Shoot It; The Secret
History of CIA’s Lethal Drone Program”, during the first in a series of new book talks that CERL will host during the 2017-18 academic year. “See It, Shoot It” has been described as eye-opening study uncovers the history of the most important instrument of U.S. counterterrorism today: the armed drone. It reveals that, contrary to popular belief, the CIA’s covert drone program is not a product of 9/11. Rather, it is the result of U.S. counterterrorism practices extending back to an influential group of policy makers in the Reagan administration.
Tracing the evolution of counterterrorism policy and drone technology from the fallout of Iran-Contra and the CIA’s “Eagle Program” prototype in the mid-1980s to the emergence of al-Qaeda, Fuller shows how George W. Bush and Obama built upon or discarded strategies from the Reagan and Clinton eras as they responded to changes in the partisan environment, the perceived level of
threat, and technological advances. Examining a range of counterterrorism strategies, he reveals
why the CIA’s drones became the United States’ preferred tool for pursuing the decades-old goal
of preemptively targeting anti-American terrorists around the world.
This book talk will be moderated by Mark Nevitt, Former aviator and attorney in the U.S. Navy, Sharswood Fellow at Penn Law.
November 2, 2017
Co-Sponsored by CERL & Moderated by Marc Ambinder, Journalist-in-Residence.
Yevgenia Albats is a Russian investigative journalist, political scientist, writer and radio host. She has received global recognition for her work on issues of human rights, corruption and governance. Albats is chief editor of The New Times magazine, and holds a position in the leadership of the Russian Jewish Congress. From 1993 to 2000, Albats served as a member of the Clemency Commission at the Executive Office of the President of the Russian Federation. Albats was the first Soviet journalist to investigate the the KGB when the communist regime was still in control.
Marc Ambinder is Journalist-in-Residence with Penn Law’s Center for Ethics and Rule of Law (CERL). Ambinder is adjunct professor at USC’s Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism and an editor-at-large of The Week. He is the author, with D.B. Grady, of The Command and Deep State: Inside the Government Secrecy Industry. Marc is also a contributing editor for The Atlantic and GQ. Formerly, he served as White House correspondent for National Journal, chief political consultant for CBS News, and politics editor at The Atlantic.
Program co-sponsored by the Office of International Programs, the Center for Ethics and Rule of Law (CERL), Perry World House, and the Kelly Writer’s House.
October 11, 2017
Location: Perry World House, University of Pennsylvania
The challenges posed by a nuclear North Korea to the global community have constituted ongoing headline news for the last two decades. However, ever since the country withdrew from the multilateral Six-Party Talks in 2009, the development of North Korea’s nuclearization efforts have greatly intensified, and opportunities for a peaceful resolution seem daunting. Kim Jong Un’s irrational penchant for chaos and destruction cannot be tamed without escalated involvement from his allies in China and Russia. North Korea’s historic commitment to the Kim family’s ideology of juche, or “self-reliance,” emboldens the country’s diplomatic, financial, and military autarky from the outside world, and complicates the prospect of compromise by excluding the traditional mechanisms of negotiation and bargaining from consideration. Finally, the chance of military engagement poses perils untold for South Korea, as nearly half of the country’s population lives within 50 miles of the DMZ.
This symposium, which is open to the public, is designed to facilitate an enhanced awareness of the possible advantages and challenges in entering negotiations with North Korea. To weigh whether negotiation can or should be available, experts representing a wide range of experiences and interests will engage in two sequential, moderated panels, followed by a keynote address.
September 8, 2017
Does Democracy Matter? The United States and Global Democracy Support
Location: Perry World House, University of Pennsylvania
The Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) is sponsoring a symposium at the Perry World House on Friday, September 8, 2017, entitled, “Does Democracy Matter? The United States and Global Democracy Support.”
April 18, 2017
Location: Golkin 100, Michael A. Fitts Auditorium
This event will be immediately followed by the Distinguished Haaga Lecture, which will be given this year by General Michael Hayden.
The discovery of widespread attempts to influence the 2016 Presidential election in the U.S. on the part of the Russians has sent shockwaves through the public and has forced us to begin to re-evaluate the current nature of the threats to democratic values and adherence to the rule of law on behalf of foreign governments that do not share the U.S. commitments to the integrity of basic democratic institutions. Drawing lessons from the recent revelations of Russian cyberhacking, as well as Russian involvement in the dissemination of fake news, there is a growing awareness that our reliance on computerized communications and data processing has created vulnerabilities for foreign interference that we had previously overlooked or underestimated.
Cyberattacks or interference with the elections of rival nations is thus emerging as a threat to national security of epic proportions. This program will be divided into two panels: the first panel will consider the nature of the threat posed by Russian hacking and cyber intelligence operations more generally, and will seek an understanding of the legal status of these activities. Does cyberhacking and targeted interference in the U.S. election constitute an act of war? If not, then how should we understand our relationship with countries that regularly engage in these activities? If so, then what actions are permissible under the law of armed conflict to forestall or prevent such attacks on our institutions and those of our allies? Is kinetic action ever justified as a response or in anticipation of a cyber attack? The second panel will address the implications of the flooding of social media with fake news by foreign powers.
Even without security breaches and the hacking efforts on the part of the Russians, the impact of false information disseminated as credible news on social media has implications both for national security and for the integrity of bona fide news organizations. How should we address the dangers posed by the dissemination of fake news and what can we do to protect against the risk that the public that makes critical political decisions will be misinformed and manipulated? How can we combat the dangers of fake news at the same time that we continue to protect and safeguard first amendment rights of both the press and individuals under the Constitution? What are the implications of these cyber activities for the authority of government leaders when their mandate to rule is partially the product of the espionage and other covert activities of rival sovereign powers? This event will be immediately followed by the Distinguished Haaga Lecture, which will be given this year by General Michael Hayden.
April 4-6, 2017
In March 2001, six months before the attacks of 9/11, the Taliban provoked international outrage when it destroyed two Ancient statues of the Buddha carved into a hillside in the Bamiyan valley in Afghanistan. Mullah Mohammed Omar, the Taliban’s leader at time, considered the statues idolatrous, and the effort to destroy them was part of a broader effort to purge the nation of pre-Islamic cultural sites and artifacts. This episode provides a vivid illustration of the degree to which cultural property has become a target in modern warfare. Achieving a better understanding of the damage inflicted by such attacks and strengthening efforts to prevent them will be the aim of our present conference.
Beyond demoralizing the enemy in war, the obliteration and looting of sacred buildings, works of art, and religious articles has the additional purpose of effacing a people’s connection to a particular locale, possibly paving the way for the permanent displacement of that population. Thus, the destruction of cultural property is more than a material and aesthetic loss, but a component of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Seeing the problem in this light adds greater urgency to the effort to stop such tragic acts.
This two and a half day conference will attempt to solidify the moral and legal basis for preserving art and culture against destruction, and the extent of the duty to do so. Should we risk lives to protect art and culture? Or should we intervene in the destruction of culture only when it is incident to our other military aims? The conference will also examine how art is used to fund terrorism and what methods and means can be introduced to eliminate the black market in looted art. What responsibility does an occupying force have to prevent its own forces from taking “souvenirs,” and what responsibility does it have to protect those same artifacts from looting or destruction by the occupied nation’s own citizens or from neglect by bureaucratic incompetency or indifference? Finally, the conference will discuss efforts to bring perpetrators to justice and create an international legal framework for preventing such incidents in the future.
PUBLIC KEYNOTE PANEL TUESDAY APRIL 4 AT 5PM
The conference starts with a public keynote panel titled New Frontiers in the Protection of Cultural Property on Tuesday, April 4 at 5pm. Registration is strongly recommended. Register here.
Dr. Richard Leventhal, Director of the Penn Museum’s Penn Center for Cultural Heritage, will moderate a wide-ranging discussion with panelists: Irina Bokova, Director-General, UNESCO; Karima Bennoune, Professor of International Law, University of California-Davis School of Law and United Nations Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights; Derek Gillman, Distinguished Teaching Professor, Westphal College of Media Arts & Design, Drexel University, and Former Executive Director and President, Barnes Foundation; Hon. Richard Goldstone, former judge, Appellate Division, Supreme Court of South Africa; and Shamila Batohi, Senior Legal Advisor to the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court.
A cocktail reception and opportunity to preview the new exhibition Cultures in the Crossfire: Stories from Syria and Iraq follows the panel discussion (limited timed tickets available with advance reservations). Presented by the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School and the Museum’s Penn Cultural Heritage Center.
October 27-29, 2016
Using Law to Fight Terror: Legal Approaches to Combatting Violent Non-State Actors
Combating violent extremism has become the highest national security priority among the U.S. and its allies in recent years. The emergence of organizations such as Al Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) represent an urgent domestic and foreign policy challenge: How can we address the threat posed by violent non-state actors while adhering to the rule of law values that form the core of democratic governance? The approach to doing so has thus far been a predominantly military one. Yet the legal framework surrounding these operations has never been clearly articulated.
The central aim of Using Law to Fight Terror is to enhance the effectiveness of our current approach by (a) exploiting the merits of different frameworks for responding forcefully to the threats posed by non-state actors while remaining constrained by ethical principles and rule of law values; (b) identifying the current challenges that confront us in our current reliance on military action; and (c) identifying alternative approaches to the security threat posed by non-states actors, ones developed within a legal framework, though perhaps implemented with military aid to civilian authorities. CERL will bring together a wide and prominent group of policy makers, highly placed military leaders, and scholars from a wide variety of different disciplines to collaborate in the development and implementation of strategic complements to current military practice in confronting violent non-state actors.
September 22, 2016
CERL presents - WHYY Voices in the Family: Understanding Trauma in Sex and War
Time: 4:00pm - 6:00pm
Location: Golkin 100, Michael A. Fitts Auditorium
The impact of sexual violence on victims is so severe that it has been compared by many professionals to the impact of war on combatants and civilian victims. What can the comparison between sexual and combat trauma teach us about the nature of trauma, and does it indicate something about possible treatments? Studying post-traumatic stress across civilian and military behavioral health contexts may provide new hope for those whose lives have been permanently marked by traumatic events.
In partnership with the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), Dr. Dan Gottlieb and a panel of experts will examine the impact of trauma in both contexts. What do different types of trauma have in common? How are they different and what treatments are effective in each case? What are the signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and how should educational and military institutions deal with vulnerability to post-traumatic stress? Finally, when should sufferers of post-traumatic stress seek help and where should they seek it?
This special will be recorded for future broadcast at WHYY.
September 15, 2016
CERL Presents - Producing Leaders of Character and Integrity: Instilling Values into Public Life
Time: 8:00am - 8:00pm
Location: Golkin 100, Michael A. Fitts Auditorium
This symposium will focus on concepts of ethical leadership and explore the contribution that educational, military, political, professional and business institutions can make towards the development of ethical leaders. CERL’s contribution to this topic reflects its focus on rule of law values: where individuals have internalized respect for the rule of law their stewardship is both ethically grounded and maximally effective.
This program has been approved for 6.5 ethics CLE credits for Pennsylvania lawyers. CLE credit may be available in other jurisdictions as well. Attendees seeking CLE credit should bring separate payment in the amount of $260.00 ($130.00 public interest/non-profit attorneys) cash or check made payable toThe Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.
CERL 2016 Summer Film Series
Join the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL) this summer as we explore ethical and legal issues concerning national security, armed conflict, and the lives of veterans through the lens of contemporary cinema. CERL will screen recent films exploring the challenging personal and political questions that arise in times of war. Topics include the controversy over the torture of U.S. detainees in Iraq (Ghosts of Abu Ghraib), the dynamics of leadership during wartime (Lincoln), and the impact of combat and post-traumatic stress on returning veterans and their families (The Messenger), among others. A brief discussion period with the audience will follow each screening. All screenings are free and open to the public.
The inaugural film screening of Ghosts of Abu Ghraib will be held on Thursday, June 9th, at 3:00pm, at the University of Pennsylvania, Gittis Hall 002 (in the basement).
Subsequent screenings will be held on Tuesdays at 3:00pm EST in the Fitts Auditorium, University of Pennsylvania Law School.
Please RSVP by following the links below.
|Gittis Hall, 002, University of Pennsylvania Law School|
|Thursday, June 9th, 3:00pm:||Ghosts of Abu Ghraib (2007)|
|Fitts Auditorium, University of Pennsylvania Law School|
|Tuesday, June 14th, 3:00pm||The Counterfeiters (2007)|
|Tuesday, June 21st, 3:00pm||Rules of Engagement (2000)|
|Tuesday, June 28th, 2:30pm||Lincoln (2012)|
|Tuesday, July 5th, 3:00pm||The Messenger (2009)|
|Tuesday, July 12th, 3:00pm||Woman in Gold (2015)|
|Tuesday, July 19th, 3:00pm||Eye in the Sky (2015)|
April 20, 2016
CERL presents: An Exclusive Screening of Thank Your For Your Service
Time: 4:30pm - 8:00pm
Location: Golkin 100, Michael A. Fitts Auditorium
Please join us for a screening of Thank You for Your Service followed by a panel discussion and Q&A with the film’s director, Tom Donahue; retired Brigadier General, U.S. Army, and combat trauma expert, Dr. Stephen Xenakis; and retired Major, U.S. Army, Ben Richards. This is event is free and open to the public. A public reception will follow.
Thank You for Your Service makes a powerful statement about our insufficient understanding of combat trauma, moral injury, and how the impact of trauma should figure in the costs of war. Director Tom Donahue interweaves the stories of four struggling Iraq War veterans with candid interviews of top military and civilian leaders. Observing the systemic neglect of trauma victims, the film argues for significant internal change and offers a roadmap of hope.
4:30 – 6:00pm: Screening of Thank You for Your Service
6:00 – 7:00pm: Panel discussion and Q&A with Tom Donahue, the film’s director; Dr. Stephen Xenakis, retired Brigadier General, U.S. Army; Ben Richards, retired Major, U.S. Army
7:00 – 8:00pm: Public cocktail reception
This program has been approved for 2.5 ethics CLE credits for Pennsylvania lawyers. CLE credit may be available in other jurisdictions as well. Attendees seeking CLE credit should bring separate payment in the amount of $50.00 ($25.00 public interest/non-profit attorneys) cash or check made payable toThe Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.
April 14-16, 2016
The Ethics of Negotiations in Armed Conflict
When states conduct negotiations in the shadow of armed conflict, the exercise of diplomacy presents certain unique challenges. Negotiating with “rogue states,” for example, raises the concern that we are helping to legitimize governments and practices we otherwise strongly condemn. Nonetheless, as some have argued, there may be an obligation to negotiate with such a state when it comes to grave security issues like weapons of mass destruction. How do the alternatives to negotiation impact the moral considerations involved in dealing with such states? Does negotiating with non-state actors, through official state channels or otherwise, undermine the international order by conferring a legitimacy and authority traditionally granted only to states? Similarly, when confronted with non-state hostage takers, many governments insist that they will not negotiate. Recently, however, the Obama administration has indicated that it will no longer bar families of hostages from paying ransom to kidnappers. How will this shift in policy impact official governmental relations with hostage takers? Does a willingness to deal with hostage takers encourage their behavior? Conversely, is it ethical to refuse to negotiate with them in the name of deterrence?
Finally, democracies face expectations of transparency and open public debate. In a democracy, what role should the public play in deciding whether to negotiate? Is secrecy necessary for diplomacy to be effective in certain cases—as with Kissinger’s trips to China? How might the role of secrecy change with respect to not only other states, but non-state armed groups? The conference will bring together high-level academics, military personnel, diplomats, and policymakers to engage in a multifaceted conversation on the legal, moral, and practical dimensions of these vital topics.
December 3-5, 2015
Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War: Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury
The financial toll of PTSD alone on U.S. economy is estimated to range in the billions of dollars, however it fails to account for the full societal and moral impact of mental health-related combat injuries. Those suffering from such injuries often have difficulty finding gainful employment, are prone to violent outbursts and substance abuse, and exhibit suicidal tendencies. Further, psychological harm related to the conduct of hostilities impacts civilians, particularly women and children, increasing the collateral costs of war. Taking these and other consequences of combat trauma into account within traditional Just War Theory presents significant challenges. Should mental health costs to service members and civilians in areas of conflict be included in the calculations of governments contemplating whether to engage in an armed conflict? Should battlefield commanders assess potential mental harms to civilians as part of the proportionality analysis of “collateral damage” conducted prior to each military engagement? Additionally, when a service member witnesses or commits a transgression from deeply held moral beliefs and expectations, he or she may suffer from what has been termed “moral injury.” Should moral injury be recognized as a mental health concern that is distinct from PTSD? Are soldiers particularly vulnerable to moral injury while confronting non-state actors embedded in civilian population?
Further questions arise in considering possible measures to prevent and treat combat trauma. Inoculating soldiers to the horrors of warfare through pre-deployment battlefield simulations or pharmacological intervention may reduce the likelihood of trauma. Such programs, however, have been criticized as desensitizing soldiers to moral indignation and reducing their capacity for sound moral decision making in combat. Similarly, PTSD treatment in the proximity of the battlefield facilitates expedient return to active duty, but may also decrease the potential of full long-term recovery. How should these aspects of prevention and treatment protocols be considered, and weighed? Finally, there are important legal and ethical questions relating to criminal and civil liability of service members suffering from mental harms. For instance, should war inflicted mental harms be taken into account in criminal trials, and to what extent? This conference will bring together policymakers and high-level experts from the military, academia, and the mental health community, to engage in a multifaceted conversation on the legal, moral and practical dimensions of these dilemmas.
September 17, 2015
Iran’s Nuclear Chess: After the Deal
CERL’s opening event for the 2015-2016 academic year aims to illuminate the moral aspects of the negotiation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action with the Islamic Republic of Iran. Discussions will revolve around the ethical and strategic dilemmas that arise when democratic nations attempt to negotiate with states who reject democratic and rule of law values. In which circumstances is it ethically permissible to negotiate with such regimes? Is focusing on Iran’s nuclear program while disregarding its connection with terrorism problematic from the standpoint of legitimizing and marginalizing such behavior? Is it strategically wise? How should lawmakers in a democracy respond to diplomatic efforts of this sort on the part of the executive branch? The wide ranging experience and expertise of CERL’s distinguished guests will enable them to present their unique perspectives on these and related questions, furthering CERL’s aim to revitalize the often neglected moral dimension of international diplomacy.
April 15, 2015
Public Keynote: Sarah Chayes, “Counterproductive Coalitions”
Partnering with “front-line” militaries has become a centerpiece of President Obama’s counter-terrorism policy. Yet the governments those militaries serve might be described as sophisticated criminal organizations, whose core objective is the use of public office to amass personal gain. Though human rights considerations do constrain some delivery of U.S. military assistance, the problem may be broader than the Leahy Law, for example, draws it. Are these really the best partners in the effort to combat extremism? What precautions are being taken to avoid associating the U.S. with the abuses of these governments?
April 15-16, 2015
Ethical Dilemmas in the Global Defense Industry
The defense industry operates at the intersection of the public and private sectors in a global arena and routinely interacts with foreign legal systems and diverse cultures. Navigating these different contexts creates challenges for the defense industry, particularly where legal and ethical norms conflict. How should a defense industry company conduct business in countries where government officials operate according to different moral norms? Should the defense industry be responsive to ethical objections to technological developments in the context of surveillance or controversial new weapons such as autonomous weapons systems? Should the global defense industry be held to a higher standard than other industries given the sensitive and potentially controversial nature of its enterprise? Domestically, other pressing questions arise. Should partnerships between the defense industry and institutions of higher learning be encouraged? Do such partnerships raise ethical concerns?
The purpose of this conference, held in partnership with Lockheed Martin Corporation, is to inspire constructive discussion pertaining to such questions, by bringing together distinguished practitioners and scholars from the private sector, academia, government service and the military to engage in an in-depth exploration of the moral and legal challenges facing the global defense industry.
April 1, 2015
Perceptions of Risk: How We Manage Emergencies
The study of risk management across a variety of domains is an essential part of policymaking today. From public health to national security, market analysis, and natural disaster emergency response, the question of how to assess and to respond to risks is of the utmost importance. Important questions pertaining to the public perception include: Does the public perceive risks accurately or are public perceptions distorted by cognitive biases? Should public perceptions of risk be taken into account in risk management plans even if they seem “irrational”? Should preparedness for disasters follow the same template as management of more ordinary risks? Should the management of risk in the public sector differ from that in the private? Should the risk of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, be handled in the same way as the risk of human threats, such as terrorism or criminal activity? Does a serious threat that persists over a protracted period of time, such as a daily threat of terrorism, still count as a security emergency? When are restrictions of civil liberties, such as quarantines or preventive restraint, justified to pre-empt risk of harm to the general public?
The purpose of this Symposium, co-sponsored by CERL, is to foster multi-disciplinary and inter-professional conversation about risk perception and strategies of emergency management. The panelists will engage in a conversation about emergency preparedness and how our perceptions of risk factor into those efforts.
March 3, 2015
An exclusive screening of ‘The Future of Interrogation: National Security in 21st Century Conflict”
On Tuesday, March 3, 2015, there will be an exclusive screening of video segments from “The Future of Interrogation: National Security in 21st Century Conflict,” a panel discussion being held in Washington, DC at the National Press Club on February 25th. The screening will be followed by a conversation with Professor Claire Finkelstein, Director of the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law, and Professor William Burke-White, Director of Perry World House. Light refreshments will be served.
February 25, 2015
The Future of Interrogation: National Security in 21st Century Conflict
The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Study of the Central Intelligence Agency’s Detention and Interrogation Program (SSCI Report) has sparked discussion about Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (EIT) and reignited the debate about the ethics and legality of their use. The Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL) in collaboration with Perry World House, both of the University of Pennsylvania, will host a public panel assessing the SSCI Report’s findings with regard to the ethics and legality of EIT. The panel will take into consideration the moral and legal rights of detainees, the role of international law in general, and International Humanitarian Law (IHL) particularly in constraining interrogation practices.
Additionally, the role of professionals–lawyers, doctors, journalists, and others who are bound by strict ethical codes of conduct–presents a particularly complex question. In rationalizing and implementing EIT, professional ethical codes can come into conflict with national security imperatives. Do professionals have a duty to oppose national security operations that violate the ethical standards of their professions? Should they have a further duty to disclose such violations to the public? How should violation of such duties be handled?
Finally, the SSCI Report itself has been highly controversial. Some see the report as a long overdue exposure of a doleful chapter in our nation’s recent history. Others see the report as an exercise in partisan politics, suggesting inaccurate statements about the efficacy of EITs as well as holding the intelligence community to unrealistic standards of accountability. The panel will explore these and related complex relationships in a non-partisan manner by bringing together a distinguished group of panelists from different professions.
November 21-22, 2014
The Ethics of Autonomous Weapons Systems
Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS) are defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as “a weapon system(s) that, once activated, can select and engage targets without further intervention by a human operator.” Since the crucial distinguishing mark of human reasoning is the capacity to set ends and goals, the AWS suggests for the first time the possibility of eliminating the human operator from the battlefield. The development of AWS technology on a broad scale, therefore, represents the potential for a transformation in the structure of war that is qualitatively different from previous military technological innovations.
The idea of fully autonomous weapons systems raises a host of intersecting philosophical and psychological issues, as well as unique legal challenges. For example, it sharply raises the question of whether moral decision-making by human beings involves an intuitive, non-algorithmic capacity that is not likely to be captured by even the most sophisticated of computers? Is this intuitive moral perceptiveness on the part of human beings ethically desirable? Does the legitimate exercise of deadly force should always require a “meaningful human control?” Should the very definition of AWS focus on the system’s capabilities for autonomous target selection and engagement, or on the human operator’s use of such capabilities? Who, if anyone, should bear the legal liability for decisions the AWS makes? The purpose of this conference is to address such questions by bringing together distinguished scholars and practitioners from various fields, to engage in constructive discussion and exploration of the moral and legal challenges posed by Autonomous Weapons Systems.
April 11-12, 2014
The Weighing of Lives in War: Combatants and Civilians in the Jus in Bello
The weight assigned to combatants’ lives has further implications beyond the battlefield. For example, the more risk on the battlefield soldiers are expected to bear, arguably the greater the national obligation to compensate and care for wounded warriors. An argument for minimizing combatant exposure, on the other hand, would have implications for the technologies we should be willing to use in order to minimize combatant casualties, even if some such technologies pose an increased risk of collateral damage. CERL’s roundtable discussion will foster an interdisciplinary discussion on these and related topics, drawing together academics and practitioners to discuss the concept of combatancy and the policy its implications.
November 22-23, 2013
On the Very Idea of Secret Laws: Transparency and Publicity in Deliberative Democracy
In Philosophical Investigations, the philosopher Ludwig Wittgentein famously suggested that language is a public, shared phenomenon, and accordingly, that there is no such thing as a “private language.” A similar doubt might be raised about the possibility of a “private law”: Is a law that is not publicly shared a conceptual contradiction, in the way a private language might be? What are the publicity conditions on the concept of law? How much transparency does the notion of deliberative democracy itself require?
The conference will consider the topic of private laws in light of the recent controversy over secrecy, surveillance, and national security. Of particular recent interest are the debates surrounding the conduct of Edward Snowden and the policies of the National Security Agency (NSA). We will also consider the secret orders of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, as well as the secret memos authored by lawyers in the Office of Legal Counsel during the Bush and Obama Administrations, and will compare different methods of maintaining secrecy and their impact on individual privacy rights and on rule of law values more generally.
October 4, 2013
Professional Ethics in National Security Law and Policy
Conflicts between the norms by which professionals are governed and more general national security norms are currently widespread in professional life. Journalists may feel obligated to divulge information they regard as vital for a fully informed public, yet the norms of national security bar disclosure. Lawyers, doctors and psychologists have been asked to help implement policies that conflict with standards of conduct in their processions. Medical researchers seeking to publish research findings are often pressured to withhold information that could have a dual military use. This conference will explore conflicts between professional and national security norms as they arise in six different professions: journalism, law, medicine, mental health, sciences, and business.
May 16, 2013
Drone Wars: The Future of Targeted Killings & Presidential Power
Join Dean Fitts and Claire Finkelstein for “Drone Wars: The Future of Targeted Killings & Presidential Power” as part of Penn Law’s Washington Seminar Series.
April 19-20, 2013
Conference on Sovereignty and the Rule of Law
The primary question of this conference is how we ought to treat national sovereignty in the face of international terrorism. Typically, we think that the national sovereignty of a country ought to be respected until war is explicitly declared. Yet, some of the most significant threats around the globe are not countries, but groups that reside in countries that they have no formal ties to. If the state that has control of such countries in unable or unwilling to deal with such threats on their own, what options are available to those states that have legitimate grievances against aggressors? Under what conditions (if any) can a state override the national sovereignty of particular countries to pursue those that they have declared war on? Is the use of drones in a territory any less of a violation of sovereignty that if soldiers are sent in? If a particular state gives secret clearance for a foreign power to enter their country, can the foreign power rightfully enter without the popular support or knowledge of that country’s citizens? In this conference we will discuss the requirements of respect for national sovereignty and what limitations ought be put on security forces in their actions against international terrorism.
View conference website
November 16-17, 2012
Conference on The Logic of Deterrence and the Changing Face of Warfare
Discussions of the logic of deterrence, both theoretical and practical, dominated the literature on just war theory during the Cold War. Despite diminished attention, the topic remains of vital importance to the current national security concerns, playing a central role in debates over Cyberwarfare and the use of non-conventional weapons or strategies. This Roundtable seeks to revive traditional discussions about the logic of deterrence, but to place this topic in a contemporary setting. Many of the former questions at the intersection of rational choice theory and ethics apply with renewed force in a post-Cold War world: Is it permissible to threaten to do something it would not otherwise be permissible to do? Does precommitment to an otherwise impermissible course of action render it permissible, given that it is accompanied by advance warning? Does deterrence require public notice to constitute a legitimate public policy? These older theoretical questions prove particularly challenging in an age of highly advanced technologies of war. How does deterrence work if the threatened attack cannot be traced back to the state that launched it? How should deterrence theory handle enemies whose actions are highly unpredictable and decentralized, and where the primary actors might not be interested in sparing civilian lives or even avoiding their own death? Is it legitimate to issue threats of kinetic action to deter a Cyber attack? Given the complexities of modern warfare and counter terrorism operations, the challenges of deterrent theory are now ripe for reexamination.
View conference website
October 15, 2012
Roundtable on Cyberwar and the Rule of Law
Cyberweapons have become the most dangerous innovation of this century. Cyberwarfare is now considered by the FBI to be the number one threat, ahead of other forms of terrorism. Cyberweapons have the potential to wreak havoc with economic, political, and military systems on the basis of a single electronic act, creating a dreadful new total war potentiality in every dimension. Preventing cyberattacks, however, puts immense pressure on notions of sovereignty and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. As compared with other forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and the law of armed conflict, cyberwarfare is particularly ambiguous from the standpoint of the rule of law: its prevention may require violating the sovereignty of other nations, violating traditional domestic privacy rights, expanding the concept of combatancy, and lowering the threshold for what counts as an act of war. The legal and moral complexities inherent in this new form of warfare make understanding the demands of the rule of law in national security an essential undertaking.
View conference website
September 11, 2012
Inaugural Panel on Foundational Questions in National Security
Since 9/11, increasing pressures on national security, together with global changes in the nature of war, have posed serious threats to the preservation of rule of law values in American society. The U.S. has struggled continuously with the ethical and legal posture of detention and interrogation, the permissibility of kill or capture raids on suspected terrorists, the legitimate scope of secrecy in the exercise of executive privilege, the acceptable extent of state investigation into the lives of private citizens, the authority of international law relative to U.S. sovereign authority, and now the expansion of the tools of war to include novel methods such as Cyber attacks. The Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law is a new institute at Penn Law devoted to the preservation of rule of law values in the face of the foregoing types of challenges.
View panel website.
This program has been approved for 1 hour of substantive law credit and 1 hour of ethics credit for Pennsylvania lawyers. Credit may be available in other jurisdictions. Attendees seeking credit should bring payment ($40 – cash or check payable to the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania). There is no charge for the event itself.
May 18 - 19, 2012
The Ethics of Secrecy and the Rule of Law Conference
Recent events have put governmental secrecy in the news and enhanced the scrutiny of classification practices. During the Bush Administration, for example, a series of secret legal memoranda authorized the use of enhanced interrogation techniques against terror suspects. These formed a key component of the Bush administration’s counterterrorism strategy. With the Obama Administration, clandestine legal memoranda have sought to justify the use of targeted killing, and one particularly controversial memo authorized the killing of an American citizen, Anwar al-Alawki. The contents of the latter have not been made public, though pressure is mounting for its release. Even the criteria by which a target is placed on the targeted killing list (the “Joint Prioritized Effects List” (JPEL)) remain confidential.
With the pressures of the ongoing War on Terror, major policies and legal questions of national importance have become less and less open to public view. The increase in secrecy is not without costs, as there appears to be a tradeoff between the need for effective security and the value of transparency. On the one hand, as Immanuel Kant wrote, “every claim to right must have this capacity for publicity.” John Rawls has echoed this same sentiment in requiring publicity as a condition of the social contract. On the other hand, effective national security crucially depends on the State’s ability to control the flow of information. This Roundtable will consider whether the expanding use of secrecy in governmental practices is desirable, and, most crucially, whether it is consistent with rule of law values.
View Conference Website
April 30, 2012
Targeted Killing: Law and Morality in an Asymmetric World Book Celebration
5:30 p.m. | Silverman 245A/Levy Conference Center
“Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetric World” is an interdisciplinary compilation of essays that brings together articles each dealing with the difficult moral and legal issues surrounding the use of targeted killing. The publication, which has been released on the British market, and soon to be released in the United States, has already garnered significant attention and acclaim. With endorsements from Professors Philip Alston and David Luban, and journalist Scott Horton, the volume is the most wide-ranging and thorough treatment of the debate surrounding targeted killing to date. Admiral John Hutson, JAGC, USN (Ret), Dean Emeritus University of New Hampshire School of Law will give a keynote address as part of the celebration event.
November 30, 2011
Ethical and Legal Dimensions of Targeted Killing
4:30 p.m. | Silverman 245A
The use of targeted killing has become a favored tool in the War on Terror. The killing of Osama Bin Laden further solidified support for the practice, given its efficiency and swift success. Since Bin Laden, several high profile targeted killings have further increased public attention to such operations. With the increased public scrutiny has come a growing sentiment that the moral and legal justifications for targeted killing have not been sufficiently explored. To what extent, for example, do we have an obligation to attempt to capture before killing terror suspects? Are some individuals on the target list civilians rather than combatants or “unlawful combatants”? Are there special problems associated with targeting American citizens, such as al-Awlaki? If killing al-Awlaki was legitimate, would the same sort of operation be permissible on U.S. soil? This panel will seek to explore the ethical and legal issues surrounding recent uses of targeted killing.
Moderator: Claire Finkelstein Algernon Biddle Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania School of Law
Jens Ohlin Associate Professor of Law, Cornell University
Kevin Govern Associate Professor of Law, Ave Maria School of Law
Daphne Eviatar Senior Associate, Law and Security Program, Human Rights First
Ambassador Thomas Graham Special Representative of the President for Arms Control, Non-Proliferation, and Disarmament, 1994-1997
Listen to the panel:
(Moderated by Claire Finkelstein)
April 15 - 16, 2011
Co-sponsored by: Jean beer Blumenfeld Center for Ethics of Georgia State
Using Targeted Killing to Fight the War on Terror: Philosophical, Moral and Legal Challenges
The Obama administration has authorized the CIA to target and kill Anwar al-Aulaqi, a radical Muslim cleric believed to have ties to al-Qaeda, on the ground that he helped to orchestrate attacks against the United States. The authorization raises the interesting question of who is a legitimate target of such military actions. In particular, it is arguably difficult to think of al-Aulaqi as a belligerent against the U.S., as he is himself an American citizen. Al-Aulaqi, however, is not the only person whose identification as a legitimate target raises moral and legal complications. The U.S. and other governments have been targeting and killing many others as part of both the fight against Islamic terrorists and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the widespread use of this technique raises important questions in just war theory. Notable as well is the fact that the U.S. has been targeting suspected militants with unmanned aerial drones, sophisticated military planes controlled remotely from distant lands.