Additional Readings

Supreme Court Case Materials

Ex parte Quirin, 317 U.S. 1 (1942)

Application of Yamashita,  327 U.S. 1 (1946)

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557, 568-69 (2006)

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004)

Rumsfeld v. Padilla 542 U.S. 426 (2004)

Statutory Materials

Authorization for the Use of Military Force (2001)

Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. L. No. 109-366 (2006)(prior to 2009 amendment)

Military Commissions Act of 2009

Academic Sources

THE UNITED STATES’ APPROACH

Lt. Col. Joseph Bialke, Al-Qaeda & Taliban Unlawful Combatant Detainees, Unlawful Belligerency , and the International Laws of Armed Conflict. 55 A.F. L. Rev. 1, 2004

Norman Goheer, The Unilateral Creation of International Law During the “War On Terror”: Murder by an Unprivileged Combatant is Not a War Crime, 10 N.Y. City L. Rev. 533, 2007

Cecile Fabre, “Guns, Food, and Liability to Attack in War,” Ethics, vol. 120, 2009.

Karl Chang, Enemy Status and Military Detention in the War Against Al-Qaeda, 47 Tex. Int’l L.J. 1, 2011

Joshua Nauman, Civilians on the Battlefield: By Using U.S. Civilians in the War on Terror, Is the Pot Calling the Kettle Black?. 91 Neb. L. Rev. 459, 2012

Laurie Blank, Targeted Strikes: The Consequences of Blurring The Armed Conflict and Self-Defense Justifications, 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1655, 2012

THE ICRC ON COMBATANT STATUS/DIRECT PARTICIPATION IN HOSTILITIES

International Committee of the Red Cross, Interpretive Guidance on Direct Participation in Hostilities, Section IX

W. Hays Parks, Part IX of the ICRC “Direct Participation in Hostilities” Study: No Mandate, No Expertise, and Legally Incorrect, 42 N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol. 769, 2010

Kenneth Watkin, Opportunity Lost: Organized Armed Groups and the ICRC Direct Participation in Hostilities Interpretive Guidance, 42 N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol. 641 (2010)

Nils Melzer, Keeping the Balance between Military Necessity and Humanity: A Response to Four Critiques of the ICRC’s Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities, 42 N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol. 831 (2010)

Jann F. Kleffner, “Section IX of the ICRC Interpretive Guidance on direct Participation in Hostilities: The End of Jus in Bello as We Know it?” Israel Law Review, vol. 45, no. 1, 2012.

KILL OR CAPTURE AND THE LEAST HARMFUL MEANS RULE

Jens David Ohlin, The Duty to Capture, 97 Minn. L. Rev. 1268 (2012)

Ryan Goodman, The Power to Kill or Capture Enemy Combatants, 24 EJIL 819 (2013)

Michael Schmitt, Wound, Capture, or Kill?, A Reply to Professor Ryan Goodman’s ‘The Power to Kill or Capture Enemy Combatants’ 24 European Journal of International Law 855 (2013)

Corn, Blank, Jenks, & Jensen, Belligerent Targeting and the Invalidity of a Least Harmful Means Rule, 89 International Law Studies 536 (2013)

UNLAWFUL AND ENEMY COMBATANTS IN THE COURTS

Joanna Woolman, Enemy Combatants: The Legal Origin of the Term “Enemy Combatant” Do Not Support its Present Day Use, 7 J.L. & Soc. Challenges 145, 2005

Geoffrey Corn, The Role of the Courts in the War On Terror: The Intersection of Hyperbole, Military Necessity, and Judicial Review, 43 New Eng. L. Rev. 17,2008

UPDATING THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT TO MODERN REALITIES

Nathaniel Berman, Privileging Combat? Contemporary Conflict and the Legal Construction of War, 43 Colum. J. Transnat”l L. 1, 2004

William Bradford, Barbarians at the Gates: A Post-September 11th Proposal to Rationalize the Laws of War, 73 Miss. L.J. 639, 2004

Derek Jinks, The Declining Significance of POW Status, 45 Harv. Int’l L.J. 367, 2004

Eric Jensen, Combatant Status: It Is Time for Intermediate Levels of Recognition for Partial Compliance, 46 Va. J. Int’l L. 209, 2005

Dale Stephens & Michael W. Lewis, The Law of Armed Conflict.—A Contemporary Critique, 6 MELB. J. INT.’L L. 55, (2005) 

Geoffrey Corn, Thinking the Unthinkable: Has the Time Come to Offer Combatants Immunity to Non-State Actors?, 22 Stan. L. & Pol’y Rev. 253, 2010

Gabriella Blum, The Dispensable Lives of Soldiers, 2 Journal of Legal Analysis 115 2010

Noëlle Quénivet, The .“War on Terror.” and the Principle of Distinction in International Humanitarian Law, 3 (Especial) COLOM. Y.B. OF INT.’L L. 155 (2010)

Jens Ohlin, ”Targeting Co-Belligerents,” in Targeted Killings: Law & Morality in an Asymmetrical World. (2011).

Monica Hakimi, A Functional Approach to Targeting and Detention, 110 Mich. L. Rev. 1365, 2012

Samuel Isaacharoff, Richard Pildes, Targeted Warfare: Individuating Enemy Responsibility, 88 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1521, 2013

PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS

Lionel McPherson, “Innocence and Responsibility in War,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 34, 2004.

Larry May, “Killing Naked Soldiers: Collective Identification in War,” Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 19, no. 3, 2005.

Christopher Kutz, “The Difference Uniforms Make: Collective Violence in Criminal Law and War,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 33, no. 2, 2005.

David Lefkowitz, “Collateral Damage,” in War: Essays in Political Philosophy, edited by Larry May and Emily Crookston, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008

Adam Roberts, The Principle of Equal Applications of the Laws of War, in JUST AND UNJUST WARRIORS: THE MORAL AND LEGAL STATUS OF SOLDIERS 226 (David Rodin & Henry Shue eds.,2008)

Michael Newton and Larry May, Proportionality in International Law, chapter 6: “Proportionality in Human Rights Law and Morality,” pp. 121-155, Oxford UP, 2014

FORCE PROTECTION

Charles Dunlap, Kosovo,Causality Aversion, and the American Military Ethos: A Perspective, 10 U.S. AIR FORCE ACAD. J. LEGAL STUD. (2000). 

Jean-Marie Henckaerts & Louise Doswald Beck, CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW: PRACTICE (2005)

Asa Kasher & Amos Yadlin, Military Ethics of Fighting Terror: An Israeli Perspective, 4 J. MIL. ETHICS 3, 14.–21 (2005)

Eyal Benvenisti, Human Dignity in Combat: The Duty To Spare Enemy Civilians, 39 ISR. L. REV. (2006)

Avishai Margalit & Michael Walzer, Israel: Civilians and Combatants, 56 N.Y. REV. BOOKS (2009)

Asa Kasher & Amos Yadlin, .‘Israel & the Rules of War.’: An Exchange, 56 N.Y. REV. BOOKS (2009)

Avishai Margalit & Michael Walzer, reply to Kasher & Yadlin, Israel & the Rules of War N.Y. REV. BOOKS (2009) 

David Luban, Risk Taking and Force Protection  READING WALZER (Itzhak Benbaji & Naomi Sussman eds., London: Routledge 2014

Asa Kasher, Operation Cast Lead and Just War Theory, 37 AZURE 43, 53 (2009) 

Avery Plaw, Upholding the Principle of Distinction in Counter- Terrorist Operations: A Dialogue, 9 J. MIL. ETHICS 3, 4.–5 (2010)

Eitan Diamond, Before the Abyss: Reshaping International Humanitarian Law To Suit the Ends of Power, 43 ISR. L. REV. (2010)

Ziv Bohrer & Mark Osiel, Proportionality in Military Force at War’s Multiple Levels: Averting Civilian Casualties vs. Safeguarding Soldiers 6 VAND. J. TRANSNAT’L L. 747 (2013)

CIVILIAN IMMUNITY and PROPORTIONALITY

A.P.V. Rogers, Conduct of Combat and Risks Run by the Civilian Population, 21 MIL. L. & L. WAR REV. 293, 310 (1982)

Colm McKeogh, Civilian Immunity in War: From Augustine to Vattel, in CIVILIAN IMMUNITY IN WAR  (Igor Primoraz ed., 2007)

Thomas W. Smith, Protecting Civilians … or Soldiers? Humanitarian Law and the Economy of Risk in Iraq, 9 INT.’L STUD. PERSP. 144  (2008)

Aaron Xavier Fellmeth, Questioning Civilian Immunity, 43 TEXAS INT.’L L.J. 453 (2008).

Kristen Dorman, Proportionality and Distinction in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 12 AUSTL. INT.’L L.J. 83 (2005).

Robert D. Sloane, The Cost of Conflation: Preserving the Dualism of Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello in the Contemporary Law of War, 34 YALE J. INT.’L L. 48  (2009)  

Gabriella Blum, The Laws of War and the “Lesser Evil,.” 35 YALE J. INT.’L L. 1  (2010).

David Kretzmer, The Inherent Right to Self-Defence and Proportionality in Jus ad Bellum, 24 EURO. J. INT.’L L. 235 (2013)

CIVILIANS IN UNIFORM

Edward F. Sherman, The Civilianization of Military Law, 22 ME. L. REV. 3  (1970)

Engel v. Netherlands, App. No. 5100/71, 22 Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser. A) (1976)

G.R. Rubin, United Kingdom Military Law: Autonomy, Civilianization, Juridification, 65 MODERN L. REV. 36 (2002)

Peter Rowe, The Soldier as a Citizen in Uniform: A Reprisal, 7 N.Z. ARMED FORCES L. REV. 1, 7, 10, 16 (2007)

Smith v. Sec.’y of State for Def., UKSC 29, [2010]  [142] (U.K.)

OTHER

Yoram Dinstein, THE CONDUCT OF HOSTILITIES UNDER THE LAW OF INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICT 225.–26 (2004)

Toni Pfanner, Asymmetrical Warfare from the Perspective of Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Action, 87 INT.’L REV. RED CROSS 149, 159 (2005).

Noam Lubell, Challenges in Applying Human Rights Law in Armed Conflict, 87 INT.’L REV. RED CROSS (2005)

DEP.’T OF THE ARMY, COUNTERINSURGENCY FIELD MANUAL (2006)

DEP.’T OF THE ARMY, ARMY LEADERSHIP: FM 6-22 (2006)

G. E. M. Anscombe, Mr. Truman’s Degree, (1958)

G. E. M. Anscombe, War and Murder, (1961)

Jeff McMahan, Liability and the Limits of Self-Defense, KILLING IN WAR (2009). 

Jeff McMahan, The Just Distribution of Harm Between Combatants and Noncombatants,” Philosophy and Pub. Aff. 38, No. 4, 342 (2010)

Rome Statue of the International Criminal Court