Background Readings

Matthew Waxman, The Power to Threaten War, The Yale Law Journal (2013) 

Matthew Waxman, Constitutional Power to Threaten War: Three Points on Syria Lawfare

Matthew Waxman, War, Threats of Force, and Law: Thoughts on North Korea Lawfare 

Karlyn Kohrs Campbell & Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Rhetoric and Presidential Politics (M. J. MacDonald ed., Oxford University Press) (2014)

Jeffrey G. Lewis, Bruno Tertrais OP #45: The Finger on the Button James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies

Finkelstein, Claire Oakes and Katz, Leo, “Contrived Defenses and Deterrent Threats: Two Facets of One Problem” (2008). Faculty Scholarship. Paper 998.

Claire Finkelstein, THREATS AND PREEMPTIVE PRACTICES, 5 Legal Theory 311–338 (1999).

John R. Harvey, “U.S. NUCLEAR COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY”, NAPSNet Special Reports, May 24, 2019 

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226, International Court of Justice (ICJ), 8 July 1996

Cimbala, Stephen J. NUCLEAR DETERRENCE IN A MULTIPOLAR WORLD: The U.S., Russia and Security Challenges. ROUTLEDGE, 2019.

Ford, Christopher A. “The Politics of Arms Control: Getting Beyond Post-Cold War Pathologies and Finding Security in a Competitive Environment - United States Department of State.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 11 Feb. 2020

Moxley, Charles J., et al. “Nuclear Weapons and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.” Fordham International Law Journal, vol. 34, no. 2, 2011, pp. 595–696. Spring.

McKenzie, Pete. “America’s Allies Are Becoming a Nuclear-Proliferation Threat.” Defense One, 25 Mar. 2020

2018 Nuclear Posture Review Final Report. United States Department of Defense, 2018

John P. Holdren (2020) The overwhelming case for no first use, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 76:1, 3-7

Isha Jainand Bhavesh Seth (2019). India’s Nuclear Force Doctrine: Through the Lens of Jus Ad Bellum; Leiden Journal of International Law, 32 (2019), pp. 111-129

Matthew Waxman, (2013), Regulating Resort to Force: Form and Substance of the U.N. Charter Regime, The European Journal of International Law Vol. 24 no. 1

Dakota S. Rudesill, Good Governance Paper No. 20: Repairing and Strengthening Norms of Nuclear Restraint, Nov. 1, 2020 

Pelopidas, Benoît, 2017. The unbearable lightness of luck. Three sources of overconfidence in the controllability of nuclear crises. European Journal of International Security 2:2, 240-262.

Sherwin, Martin J, 2020. Gambling with Armageddon. Nuclear Roulette from Hiroshima to the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Random House. 

Van Dijk, Ruud. 2014. ‘Nuclear weapons and the Cold War’ In The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War edited by Artemy M. Kalinovsky, Craig Daigle. London: Routledge 275-291.

Lebow, Richard Ned and Janice Stein. 1994. We All Lost the Cold War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, ch. 14

“Nuclear Weapons and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law: Part I: The International Framework.” Sections 1.1 through 1.4. John Burroughs and Jennifer Nordstrom.

“The Legality of Threat Or Use of Nuclear Weapons: A Guide to the Historic Opinion of the International Court of Justice.” John Burroughs. LIT Verlag Munster (1998).

“Nuclear Weapons and International Law: A Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime for the 21st Century.” Charles Moxley, John Burroughs, and Jonathan Goff. Fordham International Law Journal. Vol. 34: 595.

“Nuclear deterrence is a myth. And a lethal one at that.” David P Barash. The Guardian. 14 Jan 2018.

“Deterrence: I Don’t Think it Means What You Think it Means.” Al Maurouni. Modern War Institute. West Point. 8 Oct 2019.

“The Legality of Nuclear Weapons: A Response to Corwin.” Eric J. McFadden. Penn State International Law Review. Vol. 6 No. 3 Art. 2 (1988).

“Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons.” The International Court of Justice. Nd.

“Nuclear Weapons Under International Law: An Overview.” Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and human Rights. October 2014.

“U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues.” Congressional Research Service. Updated 10 Dec 2020.

“A ‘Legal Gap’? Nuclear Weapons Under International Law.” Bro Nystuen and Kjolv Egeland. Arms Control Association. Mar 2016.

“Nukemap (Version 2.7).” Alex Wellerstein. The Nuclear Secrecy Blog. 2012-2020.

“Nuclear weapons and the legal norms of non-use and abolition.” Ariana Smith. Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy. 13 Oct 2020.

“The Case Against New Nuclear Weapons.” Adam Mount. Center for American Progress. 4 May 2017.

“Precision Technologies: Replacement to Conventional Weapons?” Parkha Durrani. Modern Diplomacy. 21 Jul 2020.

“Conventional ‘Replacement’ of Nuclear Weapons?” Christopher Ford. Hudson Institute. 17 Nov 2020.

“The US Nuclear Arsenal.” Union of Concerned Scientist. 13 Sep 2017.

Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre, Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1972), 123-144.

Robert Butterworth, Peter Marquez, John Sheldon and Eric Sterner, Returning to Fundamentals: Deterrence and U.S. National Security in the 21st Century George C. Marshall Institute, 2011.

Kevin Chilton and Greg Weaver, Waging Deterrence in the Twenty-First Century Strategic Studies Quarterly, 2009.

Randall Dipert, Preventive War and the Epistemological Dimension of the Morality of War, Journal of Military Ethics, 2006.

Gerald Dworkin, Nuclear Intentions, Ethics, 1985.

Jonathan Granoff, Nuclear Weapons, Ethics, Morals and Law, Brigham Young University Law Review, 2000.

Jonathan Granoff, The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and Its 2005 Review Conference: A Legal and Political Analysis, International Law and Politics, September 2007.

Richard A. McCormick, Nuclear Deterrence and the Problem of Intention, Catholics and Nuclear War, pp. 168-182, 1983.

Charles J. Moxley, Jr., John Burroughs, & Jonathan Granoff, Nuclear Weapons and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Fordham International Law Journal, 2011.

Keith B. Payne, The Fallacies of Cold War and Deterrence, Chapter 2

Larry Alexander, The Doomsday Machine: Proportionality, Punishment and Prevention, The Monist, 1980.

Allen Buchanan, Justifying Preventive War, Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification, Chapter 5, 2007.

Kevin Govern, National Solutions to an International Scourge: Prosecuting Piracy Domestically as a Viable Alternative to International Tribunals, University of Miami International & Comparative Law Review, 2011.

Paul Robinson and John Darley, Does Criminal Law Deter? A Behavioral Science Investigation, Legal Studies, 2004.

David Rodin, The Problem with Prevention, Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification, Chapter 6, 2007.

Suzanne Uniacke, On Getting One’s Retaliation in First, Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification, Chapter 3, 2007.

Daniel Farrell, Utility Maximization Intentions and the Theory of Rational Choice, Philosophical Topics 21, 1993.

Gregory Kavka, Some Paradoxes of Deterrence, The Journal of Philosophy, 1978.

Anthony Kenny, The Logic of Deterrence, Chapters 4-6.

Duncan MacIntosh, Co-operative Solutions to the Prisoner’s Dilemma, Philosophical Studies, pp. 309-321, 1991.

Edward F. McClennen, Prisoner’s Dilemma and Resolute Choice, Paradoxes of Rationality and Cooperation, 1985.

Alfred Mele, Intentions, Reasons, and Beliefs: Morals of the Toxin Puzzle, Philosophical Studies, 1992.

Michael Dummett, The Morality of Deterrence, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 1986

International Court of Justice: Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons

Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996

Declaration of President Bedjaoui (translation)

Declaration of Judge Herczegh (translation)

Declaration of Judge Shi

Declaration of Judge Vereshchetin

Declaration of Judge Ferrari Bravo (translation)

Separate Opinion of Judge Guillaume (translation)

Separate Opinion of Judge Ranjeva (translation)

Separate Opinion of Judge Fleischhauer

Dissenting Opinion of Vice-President Schwebel

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Oda

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Shahabuddeen

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Weeramantry

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Koroma

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Higgins