Background Readings

Panel 1: The carnage of war, terrorist attacks, and classified information: What are a journalist’s ethical limits on reporting? 

Paul Chadwick, Reporting on Terror Without Feeding It, THE GUARDIAN (June 9, 2017), 
Raphael Cohen-Almagor, Media Coverage of Acts of Terrorism: Troubling Episodes and Suggested Guidelines, 30 CANADIAN J. COMMUNICATION, no. 3, 2005,

Marc D. Felman, The Military/Media Clash and the New Principle of War: Media Spin, SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIRPOWER STUDIES (2012),

Megan Garber, The Malaysia Air Crash: Should We Publish Pictures of Bodies?, THE ATLANTIC (July 17, 2014), 

Brigette L. Nacos, Revisiting the Contagion Hypothesis: Terrorism, News Coverage, and Copycat Attacks, 3 PERSP. ON TERRORISM, no. 3, 2009,

Karen C. Sinai, Shock and Awe: Does the First Amendment Protect a Media Right of Access to Military Operations, 22 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT. L.J. 179, 218 (2004),

THE WAR YOU DON’T SEE (Dartmouth Films 2011),

Panel 2: Leaks of classified information and whistleblower protection: Do the laws strike the right balance for journalists?

Court case: Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 US 514 - 2001 

Criminal Prohibitions On the Publication of Classified Information  (CRS, 2013), at

Cory Bennett, Charges show peril for leakers, journalists alike, POLITICO, (June 6, 2017),

Yochai Benkler, A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle Over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate, 46 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 311 (2011),

Suelette Dreyfus, Reeva Lederman, Simon K Milton & Jessie Schanzle, Human Sources: The Journalist and the Whistleblower in the Digital Era, in JOURNALISM RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION IN A DIGITAL WORLD, 48 (A.J Brown, David Lewis, Richard Moberly & Wim Vandekerckhove ed., 2014),

Thomas Drake, “Why Are We Subverting The Constitution In The Name of Security,” Washington Post, August 25, 2011.

Hannah Gurman, Unfit to Print: The Press and the Credibility of the Contra-gate Whistleblowers. An original paper produced for the CERL conference.

Sam Lebovic, Free Speech and Unfree News: The Paradox of Press Freedom in America (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2016) (EXCERPTS)

Mary-Rose Papandrea, Leaker, Traitor, Whistleblower, Spy: National Security Leaks and the First Amendment, 94 B.U.L. REV. 449 (2014),

David E. Pozen, The Leak Leviathan: Why the Government Condemns and Condones Unlawful Disclosures of Information, in Harv. L. Rev. 127, 512 (2013),

Nathan Alexander Sales, Can Technology Prevent Leaks?, 8 J. NAT’L SECURITY L. & POL’Y 73 (2015),



Panel 3: Court subpoenas and government surveillance: Have our laws left journalists too exposed?


Criminal Prohibitions On Leaks and Other Disclosures of Classified Defense Information (CRS, 2017)

Matt Apuzzo, Times Reporter Will Not Be Called to Testify in Leak Case, N.Y TIMES, Jan 12, 2015, at A1,

Brad A. Greeneburg, The Federal Media Shield Folly, 91 WASH. U. L. REV. 437 (2013),

William E. Lee, A Revisionist View of Journalist’s Privilege: Justice Powell, Branzburg and the “Proper Balance”, 34 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT LJ 113 (2016),
William E. Lee, The Demise of the Federal Shield Law, 30 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT LJ 27 (2012),

Jack Lerner & Rom Bar-Nissim, Law Enforcement Investigations Involving Journalists, Chapter 10 in WHISTLEBLOWERS, LEAKS AND THE MEDIA: THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY (2014),

Adam Liptak, A High Tech War on Leaks, N.Y. TIMES (Feb 11, 2012),

Jonathan Peters & Edson C. Tandoc, Jr., People Who Aren’t Really Reporters At All, Who Have No Professional Qualifications: Defining a Journalist and Deciding Who May Claim The Privileges, 2013 N.Y.U. J. LEGIS. & PUB. POL’Y QUORUM 34,

Charlie Savage & Leslie Kaufman, Phone Records of Journalists Seized by U.S., N.Y. TIMES (May 13, 2013),
Gabriel Schoenfeld, Time for a Shield Law?, NATIONAL AFFAIRS, Spring 2014, at 87,

Edward Wasserman, Safeguarding the News in the Era of Disruptive Sources, 32 J. MEDIA ETHICS, no.2, 2017, at 72,

UNESCO, Protecting Journalism Sources in the Digital Age (April 27, 2017), 11-13, 87-94,

Panel 4: Protecting society from “fake news” and weaponized information: 

Michael Barthel, Amy Mitchell & Jesse Holcomb, Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion, PEW RESEARCH CENTER, (Dec. 15 2016),

Naima Bouteldja, Fake news ‘symptomatic of crisis in journalism’, Aljazeera (Apr 12, 2017),

Helle Dale, “Russian Weaponization of Information.” Testimony presented to the House Foreign Affairs Committee, April 15, 2015.

Elizabeth Dwoskin, Caitlin Dewey & Craig Timberg, Why Facebook and Google are Struggling to Purge Fake News, WASH. POST, (Nov. 15 2016),

Anthony Faiola & Stephanie Kirchner, How do you stop fake news? In Germany, with a law, WASH. POST (Apr. 5, 2017),

Matthew Hindman, Journalism Ethics and Digital Audience Data, in REMAKING THE NEWS: ESSAYS ON THE FUTURE OF JOURNALISM SCHOLARSHIP IN THE DIGITAL AGE 177 (Pablo J. Boczkowski & C.W. Anderson ed., 2017),

David O. Klein & Joshua R. Wueller, Fake News: A Legal Perspective, 20 J. INTERNET L., no. 10, 2017, at 1, 6-13,

Meredith A. Levine, Journalism Ethics and the Goldwater Rule in a “Post-Truth” Media World, 45 J. AM. ACAD. PSYCHIATRY & LAW, no. 2, June 2017, at 241,

Philip N. Meyer, A Tale of 2 Stories, A.B.A.J., June 2017, at 22,

Angela Phillips, Transparency and the New Ethics of Journalism, 4 JOURNALISM PRAC. 373 (2010), 

Jacob L. Nelson, Is ‘fake news’ a fake problem?, COLUM. JOURNALISM REV. (Jan. 11, 2017),

Scott Shane, The Fake Americans Russian Created To Influence the Election, New York Times, October 30, 2017, at

Amanda Taub, The Real Story About Fake News Is Partisanship, N.Y. TIMES, Jan. 11 2017, at A3,

Aidan White, Facebook and Matters of Fact in the Post-Truth Era, in ETHICS IN THE NEWS, 14 (Aidan White Ed., 2017),


Panel 5: Journalists at risk: online harassment, physical attacks and intimidation 

Committee To Protect Journalists: Covering News In A Changing and Dangerous World, Chapter 4: Armed Conflict:

Patrick Cockburn, “Embedded Journalists: A Distotred View of the War,” The Independent, 2010

Fahmy, S., & Johnson, T. (2007). Embedded Versus Unilateral Perspectives on Iraq War.Newspaper Research Journal, 28(3), 98,99-98,99. Retrieved March 25, 2015, from Versus Unilateral Perspectives on Iraq War&btnG=&as_sdt=1,39&as_sdtp=

Kylie Tuosto, The “Grunt Truth” of Embedded Journalism: The New Media/Military Relationship, 10 STAN J. INT’l L. 18-31 (2015)

Wojciech Adamczyk, Killed in Action: Female Investigative Reporters, War Correspondents and Local Journalists, and the Risk of Death or Becoming a Victim of Violence, 3 SRODKOWO EUROPEJSKIE STUDIA POLITYCZNE 77 (2014),

Stephen Jukes, Journalists at risk: looking beyond just physical safety (Sept. 2015) (unpublished working paper) (on file with Cardiff University School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies),

Joanne M. Lisosky & Jennifer Henrichsen, Don’t Shoot the Messenger: Prospects for Protecting Journalists in Conflict Situations, 2 MEDIA, WAR & CONFLICT 129 (2009),

Ben Saul, The International Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflict and Other Violent Situations, 14 AUSTRALIAN J. HUM. RTS 99 (2008),

Panel 6: National Security Journalism In the Age of Trump

Samantha Power, Why Foreign Propaganda Is More Dangerous Now, N.Y. TIMES, Sept. 19, 2017,

S.I. Strong, Alternative Facts and the Post-Truth Society: Meeting the Challenge, 165 U. PA. L. REV. 137 (2017),