Background Readings

Panel 1: The carnage of war, terrorist attacks, and classified information: What are a journalist’s ethical limits on reporting? 

Paul Chadwick, Reporting on Terror Without Feeding It, THE GUARDIAN (June 9, 2017), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jun/09/reporting-on-terror-without-feeding-it 
 
Raphael Cohen-Almagor, Media Coverage of Acts of Terrorism: Troubling Episodes and Suggested Guidelines, 30 CANADIAN J. COMMUNICATION, no. 3, 2005, http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/viewFile/1579/1735

Marc D. Felman, The Military/Media Clash and the New Principle of War: Media Spin, SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIRPOWER STUDIES (2012), http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.176.4411

Megan Garber, The Malaysia Air Crash: Should We Publish Pictures of Bodies?, THE ATLANTIC (July 17, 2014), https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/07/a-verified-newsphoto-doesnt-have-to-be-a-published-news-photo/374626/%C2%A0 

Brigette L. Nacos, Revisiting the Contagion Hypothesis: Terrorism, News Coverage, and Copycat Attacks, 3 PERSP. ON TERRORISM, no. 3, 2009, http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/73/html

Karen C. Sinai, Shock and Awe: Does the First Amendment Protect a Media Right of Access to Military Operations, 22 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT. L.J. 179, 218 (2004), http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/caelj22&id=187&collection=journals&index=

THE WAR YOU DON’T SEE (Dartmouth Films 2011), https://vimeo.com/67739294

Panel 2: Leaks of classified information and whistleblower protection: Do the laws strike the right balance for journalists?

Court case: Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 US 514 - 2001 

Criminal Prohibitions On the Publication of Classified Information  (CRS, 2013), at https://fas.org/sgp/crs/secrecy/R41404.pdf

Cory Bennett, Charges show peril for leakers, journalists alike, POLITICO, (June 6, 2017), http://www.politico.com/story/2017/06/06/journalists-leaks-security-government-239215

Yochai Benkler, A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle Over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate, 46 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 311 (2011), https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/10900863/benkler.pdf?sequence=1

Suelette Dreyfus, Reeva Lederman, Simon K Milton & Jessie Schanzle, Human Sources: The Journalist and the Whistleblower in the Digital Era, in JOURNALISM RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION IN A DIGITAL WORLD, 48 (A.J Brown, David Lewis, Richard Moberly & Wim Vandekerckhove ed., 2014), https://andrewclausen.net/HumanSources.pdf

Thomas Drake, “Why Are We Subverting The Constitution In The Name of Security,” Washington Post, August 25, 2011. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/why-are-we-subverting-the-constitution-in-the-name-of-security/2011/08/25/gIQANnrheJ_story.html?utm_term=.3b08dc67faeb

Hannah Gurman, Unfit to Print: The Press and the Credibility of the Contra-gate Whistleblowers. An original paper produced for the CERL conference.

Sam Lebovic, Free Speech and Unfree News: The Paradox of Press Freedom in America (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2016) (EXCERPTS)

Mary-Rose Papandrea, Leaker, Traitor, Whistleblower, Spy: National Security Leaks and the First Amendment, 94 B.U.L. REV. 449 (2014), http://www.bu.edu/bulawreview/files/2014/05/PAPANDREA.pdf

David E. Pozen, The Leak Leviathan: Why the Government Condemns and Condones Unlawful Disclosures of Information, in Harv. L. Rev. 127, 512 (2013), https://harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/vol127_pozen.pdf

Nathan Alexander Sales, Can Technology Prevent Leaks?, 8 J. NAT’L SECURITY L. & POL’Y 73 (2015), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2668646

CITIZENFOUR (HBO Films 2014), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8nU6Suh57k

 

Panel 3: Court subpoenas and government surveillance: Have our laws left journalists too exposed?

 

Criminal Prohibitions On Leaks and Other Disclosures of Classified Defense Information (CRS, 2017)

Matt Apuzzo, Times Reporter Will Not Be Called to Testify in Leak Case, N.Y TIMES, Jan 12, 2015, at A1, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/13/us/times-reporter-james-risen-will-not-be-called-to-testify-in-leak-case-lawyers-say.html?mcubz=3

Brad A. Greeneburg, The Federal Media Shield Folly, 91 WASH. U. L. REV. 437 (2013), http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6047&context=law_lawreview

William E. Lee, A Revisionist View of Journalist’s Privilege: Justice Powell, Branzburg and the “Proper Balance”, 34 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT LJ 113 (2016), http://www.heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/caelj34&id=127&collection=journals&index=
  
William E. Lee, The Demise of the Federal Shield Law, 30 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT LJ 27 (2012), http://www.cardozoaelj.com/wp-content/uploads/Journal%20Issues/Volume%2030/Issue%201/Lee.pdf

Jack Lerner & Rom Bar-Nissim, Law Enforcement Investigations Involving Journalists, Chapter 10 in WHISTLEBLOWERS, LEAKS AND THE MEDIA: THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY (2014), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2530799

Adam Liptak, A High Tech War on Leaks, N.Y. TIMES (Feb 11, 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/a-high-tech-war-on-leaks.html?mcubz=3

Jonathan Peters & Edson C. Tandoc, Jr., People Who Aren’t Really Reporters At All, Who Have No Professional Qualifications: Defining a Journalist and Deciding Who May Claim The Privileges, 2013 N.Y.U. J. LEGIS. & PUB. POL’Y QUORUM 34,http://www.nyujlpp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Peters-Tandoc-Quorum-2013.pdf

Charlie Savage & Leslie Kaufman, Phone Records of Journalists Seized by U.S., N.Y. TIMES (May 13, 2013), http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/us/phone-records-of-journalists-of-the-associated-press-seized-by-us.html?mcubz=3
  
Gabriel Schoenfeld, Time for a Shield Law?, NATIONAL AFFAIRS, Spring 2014, at 87, https://www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/time-for-a-shield-law%C2%A0

Edward Wasserman, Safeguarding the News in the Era of Disruptive Sources, 32 J. MEDIA ETHICS, no.2, 2017, at 72, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23736992.2017.1294020

UNESCO, Protecting Journalism Sources in the Digital Age (April 27, 2017), 11-13, 87-94, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002480/248054E.pdf

Panel 4: Protecting society from “fake news” and weaponized information: 

Michael Barthel, Amy Mitchell & Jesse Holcomb, Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion, PEW RESEARCH CENTER, (Dec. 15 2016), http://www.journalism.org/2016/12/15/many-americans-believe-fake-news-is-sowing-confusion/

Naima Bouteldja, Fake news ‘symptomatic of crisis in journalism’, Aljazeera (Apr 12, 2017), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/04/fake-news-symptomatic-crisis-journalism-170412092154717.html

Helle Dale, “Russian Weaponization of Information.” Testimony presented to the House Foreign Affairs Committee, April 15, 2015. http://www.heritage.org/testimony/russias-weaponization-information

Elizabeth Dwoskin, Caitlin Dewey & Craig Timberg, Why Facebook and Google are Struggling to Purge Fake News, WASH. POST, (Nov. 15 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/why-facebook-and-google-are-struggling-to-purge-fake-news/2016/11/15/85022897-f765-422e-9f53-c720d1f20071_story.html?utm_term=.43bf788b5d25

Anthony Faiola & Stephanie Kirchner, How do you stop fake news? In Germany, with a law, WASH. POST (Apr. 5, 2017), https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/how-do-you-stop-fake-news-in-germany-with-a-law/2017/04/05/e6834ad6-1a08-11e7-bcc2-7d1a0973e7b2_story.html?utm_term=.9295be74774d%C2%A0

Matthew Hindman, Journalism Ethics and Digital Audience Data, in REMAKING THE NEWS: ESSAYS ON THE FUTURE OF JOURNALISM SCHOLARSHIP IN THE DIGITAL AGE 177 (Pablo J. Boczkowski & C.W. Anderson ed., 2017), https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1pwt5kk

David O. Klein & Joshua R. Wueller, Fake News: A Legal Perspective, 20 J. INTERNET L., no. 10, 2017, at 1, 6-13, http://www.kleinmoynihan.com/fake-news-a-legal-perspective/

Meredith A. Levine, Journalism Ethics and the Goldwater Rule in a “Post-Truth” Media World, 45 J. AM. ACAD. PSYCHIATRY & LAW, no. 2, June 2017, at 241, http://jaapl.org/content/45/2/241

Philip N. Meyer, A Tale of 2 Stories, A.B.A.J., June 2017, at 22, http://www.abajournal.com/magazine/article/alternative_facts_law_justice_reality

Angela Phillips, Transparency and the New Ethics of Journalism, 4 JOURNALISM PRAC. 373 (2010), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233355222_Transparency_And_The_New_Ethics_Of_Journalism 

Jacob L. Nelson, Is ‘fake news’ a fake problem?, COLUM. JOURNALISM REV. (Jan. 11, 2017), https://www.cjr.org/analysis/fake-news-facebook-audience-drudge-breitbart-study.php

Scott Shane, The Fake Americans Russian Created To Influence the Election, New York Times, October 30, 2017, at  https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/07/us/politics/russia-facebook-twitter-election.html?_r=0

Amanda Taub, The Real Story About Fake News Is Partisanship, N.Y. TIMES, Jan. 11 2017, at A3, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/11/upshot/the-real-story-about-fake-news-is-partisanship.html?mcubz=3

Aidan White, Facebook and Matters of Fact in the Post-Truth Era, in ETHICS IN THE NEWS, 14 (Aidan White Ed., 2017), https://blog.wan-ifra.org/2017/01/10/facebook-and-matters-of-fact-in-the-post-truth-era

 

Panel 5: Journalists at risk: online harassment, physical attacks and intimidation 

Committee To Protect Journalists: Covering News In A Changing and Dangerous World, Chapter 4: Armed Conflict:  https://cpj.org/reports/2012/04/armed-conflict.php

Patrick Cockburn, “Embedded Journalists: A Distotred View of the War,” The Independent, 2010  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/opinion/embedded-journalism-a-distorted-view-of-war-2141072.html

Fahmy, S., & Johnson, T. (2007). Embedded Versus Unilateral Perspectives on Iraq War.Newspaper Research Journal, 28(3), 98,99-98,99. Retrieved March 25, 2015, fromhttps://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=Embedded Versus Unilateral Perspectives on Iraq War&btnG=&as_sdt=1,39&as_sdtp=

Kylie Tuosto, The “Grunt Truth” of Embedded Journalism: The New Media/Military Relationship, 10 STAN J. INT’l L. 18-31 (2015)  https://web.stanford.edu/group/sjir/pdf/journalism_real_final_v2.pdf

Wojciech Adamczyk, Killed in Action: Female Investigative Reporters, War Correspondents and Local Journalists, and the Risk of Death or Becoming a Victim of Violence, 3 SRODKOWO EUROPEJSKIE STUDIA POLITYCZNE 77 (2014), https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=290112

Stephen Jukes, Journalists at risk: looking beyond just physical safety (Sept. 2015) (unpublished working paper) (on file with Cardiff University School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies), http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/23308/

Joanne M. Lisosky & Jennifer Henrichsen, Don’t Shoot the Messenger: Prospects for Protecting Journalists in Conflict Situations, 2 MEDIA, WAR & CONFLICT 129 (2009), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1750635209104651

Ben Saul, The International Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflict and Other Violent Situations, 14 AUSTRALIAN J. HUM. RTS 99 (2008), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1485844

Panel 6: National Security Journalism In the Age of Trump

Samantha Power, Why Foreign Propaganda Is More Dangerous Now, N.Y. TIMES, Sept. 19, 2017, https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/why-foreign-propaganda-more-dangerous-now

S.I. Strong, Alternative Facts and the Post-Truth Society: Meeting the Challenge, 165 U. PA. L. REV. 137 (2017), http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/penn_law_review_online/vol165/iss1/14/