Background Readings

Panel 1: The carnage of war, terrorist attacks, and classified information: What are a journalist’s ethical limits on reporting? 

Paul Chadwick, Reporting on Terror Without Feeding It, THE GUARDIAN (June 9, 2017), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jun/09/reporting-on-terror-without-feeding-it 
 
Raphael Cohen-Almagor, Media Coverage of Acts of Terrorism: Troubling Episodes and Suggested Guidelines, 30 CANADIAN J. COMMUNICATION, no. 3, 2005, http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/viewFile/1579/1735

Marc D. Felman, The Military/Media Clash and the New Principle of War: Media Spin, SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIRPOWER STUDIES (2012), http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.176.4411

Megan Garber, The Malaysia Air Crash: Should We Publish Pictures of Bodies?, THE ATLANTIC (July 17, 2014), https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/07/a-verified-newsphoto-doesnt-have-to-be-a-published-news-photo/374626/%C2%A0 

Brigette L. Nacos, Revisiting the Contagion Hypothesis: Terrorism, News Coverage, and Copycat Attacks, 3 PERSP. ON TERRORISM, no. 3, 2009, http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/73/html

Karen C. Sinai, Shock and Awe: Does the First Amendment Protect a Media Right of Access to Military Operations, 22 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT. L.J. 179, 218 (2004), http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/caelj22&id=187&collection=journals&index=

THE WAR YOU DON’T SEE (Dartmouth Films 2011), https://vimeo.com/67739294

Panel 2: Leaks of classified information and whistleblower protection: Do the laws strike the right balance for journalists?

Cory Bennett, Charges show peril for leakers, journalists alike, POLITICO, (June 6, 2017), http://www.politico.com/story/2017/06/06/journalists-leaks-security-government-239215

Yochai Benkler, A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle Over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate, 46 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 311 (2011), https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/10900863/benkler.pdf?sequence=1

Suelette Dreyfus, Reeva Lederman, Simon K Milton & Jessie Schanzle, Human Sources: The Journalist and the Whistleblower in the Digital Era, in JOURNALISM RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION IN A DIGITAL WORLD, 48 (A.J Brown, David Lewis, Richard Moberly & Wim Vandekerckhove ed., 2014), https://andrewclausen.net/HumanSources.pdf

Robert D. Epstein, Note, Balancing National Security and Free-Speech Rights: Why Congress Should Revise the Espionage Act, 15 CATH. U.J.L. & TECH. 483 (2007), http://scholarship.law.edu/commlaw/vol15/iss2/7/

Sam Lebovic, Free Speech and Unfree News: The Paradox of Press Freedom in America (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2016) (EXCERPTS)

Mary-Rose Papandrea, Leaker, Traitor, Whistleblower, Spy: National Security Leaks and the First Amendment, 94 B.U.L. REV. 449 (2014), http://www.bu.edu/bulawreview/files/2014/05/PAPANDREA.pdf

David E. Pozen, The Leak Leviathan: Why the Government Condemns and Condones Unlawful Disclosures of Information, in Harv. L. Rev. 127, 512 (2013), https://harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/vol127_pozen.pdf

Nathan Alexander Sales, Can Technology Prevent Leaks?, 8 J. NAT’L SECURITY L. & POL’Y 73 (2015), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2668646

CITIZENFOUR (HBO Films 2014), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8nU6Suh57k

 

Panel 3: Court subpoenas and government surveillance: Have our laws left journalists too exposed?

Matt Apuzzo, Times Reporter Will Not Be Called to Testify in Leak Case, N.Y TIMES, Jan 12, 2015, at A1, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/13/us/times-reporter-james-risen-will-not-be-called-to-testify-in-leak-case-lawyers-say.html?mcubz=3

Brad A. Greeneburg, The Federal Media Shield Folly, 91 WASH. U. L. REV. 437 (2013), http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6047&context=law_lawreview

William E. Lee, A Revisionist View of Journalist’s Privilege: Justice Powell, Branzburg and the “Proper Balance”, 34 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT LJ 113 (2016), http://www.heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/caelj34&id=127&collection=journals&index=
  
William E. Lee, The Demise of the Federal Shield Law, 30 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT LJ 27 (2012), http://www.cardozoaelj.com/wp-content/uploads/Journal%20Issues/Volume%2030/Issue%201/Lee.pdf

Jack Lerner & Rom Bar-Nissim, Law Enforcement Investigations Involving Journalists, Chapter 10 in WHISTLEBLOWERS, LEAKS AND THE MEDIA: THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY (2014), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2530799

Adam Liptak, A High Tech War on Leaks, N.Y. TIMES (Feb 11, 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/a-high-tech-war-on-leaks.html?mcubz=3

Jonathan Peters & Edson C. Tandoc, Jr., People Who Aren’t Really Reporters At All, Who Have No Professional Qualifications: Defining a Journalist and Deciding Who May Claim The Privileges, 2013 N.Y.U. J. LEGIS. & PUB. POL’Y QUORUM 34,http://www.nyujlpp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Peters-Tandoc-Quorum-2013.pdf

Charlie Savage & Leslie Kaufman, Phone Records of Journalists Seized by U.S., N.Y. TIMES (May 13, 2013), http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/us/phone-records-of-journalists-of-the-associated-press-seized-by-us.html?mcubz=3
  
Gabriel Schoenfeld, Time for a Shield Law?, NATIONAL AFFAIRS, Spring 2014, at 87, https://www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/time-for-a-shield-law%C2%A0

Edward Wasserman, Safeguarding the News in the Era of Disruptive Sources, 32 J. MEDIA ETHICS, no.2, 2017, at 72, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23736992.2017.1294020

UNESCO, Protecting Journalism Sources in the Digital Age (April 27, 2017), 11-13, 87-94, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002480/248054E.pdf

Panel 4: Protecting society from “fake news” and weaponized information: 

Michael Barthel, Amy Mitchell & Jesse Holcomb, Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion, PEW RESEARCH CENTER, (Dec. 15 2016), http://www.journalism.org/2016/12/15/many-americans-believe-fake-news-is-sowing-confusion/

Naima Bouteldja, Fake news ‘symptomatic of crisis in journalism’, Aljazeera (Apr 12, 2017), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/04/fake-news-symptomatic-crisis-journalism-170412092154717.html

Elizabeth Dwoskin, Caitlin Dewey & Craig Timberg, Why Facebook and Google are Struggling to Purge Fake News, WASH. POST, (Nov. 15 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/why-facebook-and-google-are-struggling-to-purge-fake-news/2016/11/15/85022897-f765-422e-9f53-c720d1f20071_story.html?utm_term=.43bf788b5d25

Anthony Faiola & Stephanie Kirchner, How do you stop fake news? In Germany, with a law, WASH. POST (Apr. 5, 2017), https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/how-do-you-stop-fake-news-in-germany-with-a-law/2017/04/05/e6834ad6-1a08-11e7-bcc2-7d1a0973e7b2_story.html?utm_term=.9295be74774d%C2%A0

Matthew Hindman, Journalism Ethics and Digital Audience Data, in REMAKING THE NEWS: ESSAYS ON THE FUTURE OF JOURNALISM SCHOLARSHIP IN THE DIGITAL AGE 177 (Pablo J. Boczkowski & C.W. Anderson ed., 2017), https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1pwt5kk

David O. Klein & Joshua R. Wueller, Fake News: A Legal Perspective, 20 J. INTERNET L., no. 10, 2017, at 1, 6-13, http://www.kleinmoynihan.com/fake-news-a-legal-perspective/

Meredith A. Levine, Journalism Ethics and the Goldwater Rule in a “Post-Truth” Media World, 45 J. AM. ACAD. PSYCHIATRY & LAW, no. 2, June 2017, at 241, http://jaapl.org/content/45/2/241

Philip N. Meyer, A Tale of 2 Stories, A.B.A.J., June 2017, at 22, http://www.abajournal.com/magazine/article/alternative_facts_law_justice_reality

Angela Phillips, Transparency and the New Ethics of Journalism, 4 JOURNALISM PRAC. 373 (2010), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233355222_Transparency_And_The_New_Ethics_Of_Journalism 

Jacob L. Nelson, Is ‘fake news’ a fake problem?, COLUM. JOURNALISM REV. (Jan. 11, 2017), https://www.cjr.org/analysis/fake-news-facebook-audience-drudge-breitbart-study.php

 

Amanda Taub, The Real Story About Fake News Is Partisanship, N.Y. TIMES, Jan. 11 2017, at A3, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/11/upshot/the-real-story-about-fake-news-is-partisanship.html?mcubz=3

Aidan White, Facebook and Matters of Fact in the Post-Truth Era, in ETHICS IN THE NEWS, 14 (Aidan White Ed., 2017), https://blog.wan-ifra.org/2017/01/10/facebook-and-matters-of-fact-in-the-post-truth-era

 

Panel 5: Journalists at risk: online harassment, physical attacks and intimidation 

Committee To Protect Journalists: Covering News In A Changing and Dangerous World, Chapter 4: Armed Conflict:  https://cpj.org/reports/2012/04/armed-conflict.php

Patrick Cockburn, “Embedded Journalists: A Distotred View of the War,” The Independent, 2010  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/opinion/embedded-journalism-a-distorted-view-of-war-2141072.html

Fahmy, S., & Johnson, T. (2007). Embedded Versus Unilateral Perspectives on Iraq War.Newspaper Research Journal, 28(3), 98,99-98,99. Retrieved March 25, 2015, fromhttps://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=Embedded Versus Unilateral Perspectives on Iraq War&btnG=&as_sdt=1,39&as_sdtp=

Kylie Tuosto, The “Grunt Truth” of Embedded Journalism: The New Media/Military Relationship, 10 STAN J. INT’l L. 18-31 (2015)  https://web.stanford.edu/group/sjir/pdf/journalism_real_final_v2.pdf

Wojciech Adamczyk, Killed in Action: Female Investigative Reporters, War Correspondents and Local Journalists, and the Risk of Death or Becoming a Victim of Violence, 3 SRODKOWO EUROPEJSKIE STUDIA POLITYCZNE 77 (2014), https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=290112

Stephen Jukes, Journalists at risk: looking beyond just physical safety (Sept. 2015) (unpublished working paper) (on file with Cardiff University School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies), http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/23308/

Joanne M. Lisosky & Jennifer Henrichsen, Don’t Shoot the Messenger: Prospects for Protecting Journalists in Conflict Situations, 2 MEDIA, WAR & CONFLICT 129 (2009), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1750635209104651

Ben Saul, The International Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflict and Other Violent Situations, 14 AUSTRALIAN J. HUM. RTS 99 (2008), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1485844

Panel 6: National Security Journalism In the Age of Trump

Samantha Power, Why Foreign Propaganda Is More Dangerous Now, N.Y. TIMES, Sept. 19, 2017, https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/why-foreign-propaganda-more-dangerous-now

S.I. Strong, Alternative Facts and the Post-Truth Society: Meeting the Challenge, 165 U. PA. L. REV. 137 (2017), http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/penn_law_review_online/vol165/iss1/14/