Background Readings

Session 1—Historical Roots of Foreign Interference: The Framers’ and Their Efforts to Secure Democratic Independence

Peter Beinart, The U.S. Needs to Face Up to Its Long History of Election Meddling, The Atlantic (July 22, 2018)

Jason Daley, Notes Indicate Nixon Interfered With 1968 Peace Talks, Smithsonian Magazine, (January 2, 2017)

Dov Levin, When the Great Power Gets a Vote: The Effects of Great Power Electoral Interventions on Election Results, International Studies Quarterly. (2016)

Ishaan Tharoor, The Long History of the U.S. Interfering with Elections Elsewhere,  The Washington Post (Oct. 13th, 2016)

Steve Usdin, When a Foreign Government Interfered in a U.S. Election – to Reelect F.D.R. Politico (January 16, 2017)

Calder Walton, Active Measures”: a History of Russian Interference in U.S. Elections, Prospect (December 23, 2016)

Session 2—Patterns of Interference in Domestic and Foreign Elections

Paul M. Barrett, Tara Wadhwa and Dorothee Baumann-Pauly, Combating Russian Disinformation: The Case for Stepping Up the Fight Online, NYU Stern Center for Business and Human Rights (Jul. 23rd, 2016)

Philip Bump, What data on more than 3,500 Russian Facebook ads reveals about the interference effort, The Washington Post (May 10th,2018)

Carole Cadwalldr and Stephanie Kirchgaessner, Cambridge Analytica director ‘met Assange to discuss US election’, The Guardian (Jun. 7th, 2018)

Jolanta Darczewska, The Devil is in the Details: Information warfare in the Light of Military Doctrine, Centre for Eastern Studies (May 2015)

Jennifer Forestal, The Architecture of Political Spaces: Trolls, Digital Media, and Deweyan Democracy, 111 (1) American Political Science Review, 149 (2017)

Tarlach McGonagle, Fake news: False fears or real concerns?, 35(4) Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 203 (2017)

Declan Murphy, The Fourth Estate Under Siege, Fordham Political Review (Mar. 8th, 2017)

Timothy Thomas, Russia’s Information Warfare Strategy: Can the Nation Cope in Future Conflicts?, 27(1) The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 101 (2014) 

Session 3—Cyber-Based Foreign Interference

Cynthia E. Ayers, Rethinking Sovereignty in the context of cyberspace: The Cyberspace Workshop Series, Center for Strategic Leadership - United States Army War College (Dec. 2016)

Patrick Franzese, Sovereignty in Cyberspace; Can it Exist?, 64 (1) Air Force Law Review 1 (2009)

Alex Grigsby, The End of Cyber Norms, 59(6) Survival 109 (2017)

Oona A. Hathaway et al., The Law of Cyber-Attack, 100(4) California Law Review 817 (2012)

Susan Landau, Listening In: Cybersecurity in an Insecure Age. (2017)

Mary Ellen O’Connell, Cyber Security without Cyber War, 17 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 187 (2012)

Mary Ellen O’Connell and Louise Arimatsu, Cyber Security and International Law, International Law: Meeting Summary at Chatham House (May 29th,2012) 

Jens David Ohlin, Did Russian Cyber-Interference in the 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-15 (Mar. 16th, 2017)

Evan Osnos, David Remnick, and Joshua Yaffa, Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War, The New Yorker (March 6, 2017)

William Alan Reinsch, A Data Localization Free-for-All?, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (Mar. 9th, 2018)

Michael N. Schmitt, Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace, 42(2) Yale Journal of International Law 1 (2017)

Delbert Tran, The Law of Attribution: Rules for Attributing the Source of a Cyber-Attack,  20 Yale Journal of Law and Technology 376 (2018)

Jacqueline Van De Velde, The Law of Cyber Interference in Elections, SSRN (May 15th, 2017)

James Van De Valde, Why Cyber Norms Are Dumb and Advance Russian Interests, The Cipher Brief (Jun. 6th, 2016)

Session 4—Dark Money: Domestic Regulation, Transnational Law Enforcement, and the Political Philosophy Protecting Democratic Processes

Ramond Baker, Capitalism’s Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market System (2005)

Matt Burgess, Now Facebook’s Russian Advert Crisis is Turning Towards Brexit, Wired UK (Nov. 1st, 2017)

Matt Burgess, Where the UK’s Investigations into Russia’s Brexit Meddling Stand, Wired UK (Jan. 30th, 2018)

Carole Cadwalladr, Vote Leave donations: the dark ads, the mystery ‘letter’ – and Brexit’s online guru, The Guardian (Nov. 25th, 2017)

Stacy Cowley, Banks Adopt Military-Style Tactics to Fight Cybercrime, New York Times (May 20th, 2018)

Alan Ehrenhalt, Dark Money,’ by Jane Mayer, New York Times (Jan. 19th, 2016)

Lee Fang, Chinese State-owned Chemical Firm Joins Dark Money Group Pouring Cash Into U.S. Elections, The Intercept (Feb. 15th, 2018)

Tim Mak, NRA, In New Document, Acknowledges More Than 20 Russian-Linked Contributors, NPR (Apr. 11th, 2018)

Session 5—The 2018 Midterm Elections: Will They Be Free and Fair?

Sheera Frenkel & Matthew Rosenberg, Top Tech Companies met with Intelligence Officials to Discuss Midterms, The New York Times. (June 25, 2018).

Adam Goldman, Justice Department Accuses Russian of Interfering in Midterm Elections, The New York Times (October 19, 2018)

Joseph Menn & Paresh Dave, Facebook says it identifies campaign to meddle in 2018 U.S. Elections, Reuters (July 31, 2018)

Session 6—The Long-term Game: What is the Future of Information Warfare, Political Cyber-Interference and Can Democracy Prevail?

Katrin Bennhold, Germany Acts to Tame Facebook, Learning From Its Own History of Hate, New York Times (May 19th, 2018)

European Commission, Tackling Online Disinformation: A European Approach, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, and the Committee of the Regions (Apr. 26th, 2018)

Marc H. Greenberg,  A Return to Lilliput: The LICRA v. Yahoo - Case and the Regulation of Online Content in the World Market, 18(4) Berkeley Technology Law Journal 1191 (2003)

Heather Conley, Jean-Baptiste Jeangène Vilmer, Successfully Countering Russian Electoral Interference, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (Jun. 21st, 2018)

Daphne Keller, Internet Platforms: Observations on Speech, Danger, and Money Hoover Institution (Jun. 13th, 2018)

William P. Marshall, False Campaign Speech and the First Amendment, 153(1) University of Pennsylvania Law Review 285 (2004)

Ciara Nugent, France is Voting on a Law Banning Fake News: Here’s How it Could Work, Time Magazine (Jun. 7th, 2018)

Jennifer Rankin, Tech firms could face new EU regulations over fake news, The Guardian (April 24th, 2018)

Niklas H. Rossbach, Psychological Defense: Vital for Sweden’s Defense Capability, Swedish Defense Research Agency (Nov. 2017)

Stefan Theil, The New German Social Media Law: A Risk Worth Taking? An Extended Look, Inforrm’s Blog (Feb. 20th, 2018)

Patrick Tucker, Analysts Are Quitting the State Department’s Anti-Propaganda Team, Defense One (Sep. 12th, 2017)

James Van De Valde, How to Defeat ISIS: Crash Their Comms, The American Interest (Jan. 10th, 2015)

James Van De Velde, Russia is at ‘Info War’ With the United States, The Cipher Brief (Nov. 17th, 2016)

James Van De Valde, ’War in Peace:’ Cyberspace and the Era of Persistent Confrontation, The American Interest (Sep. 5th, 2016)