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My broad research interest is empirical law and economics.  Specific applications I have written about fall in the areas of:

health law, economics, and policy; crime; litigation; discrimination;

risky sex; addiction; corporate governance; charitable trusts; education;

medical malpractice; regulation; preemption; and punitive damages


My theoretical work focuses primarily on topics in constitutional political economy

Cites to my published work can be found on my C.V.





62) “When Should Governments Invest More in Nudging? Revisiting Benartzi et al. (2017),” (with Avishalom Tor) Review of Law and Economics, 18(3): 347–376 (2022).


61) “Sobering Up After the Seventh Inning: Alcohol and Crime Around the Ballpark,” (with John MacDonald) Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 37(3): 813-834 (2021).

60) “The Ineffectiveness of ‘Observe and Report’ Patrols on Crime,” (with Marco Fabbri) International Review of Law and Economics, 65: 105972 (2021).


59) “Deterrence and Liability for Intentional Torts,” (with John MacDonald) International Review of Law and Economics, 63(1): Article 105926 (2020).

58) “Surveying the Not Yet Dead,” UC Davis Law Review, 53(5): 2647-2654 (2020).


57) “Requiem for a Paradox: The Dubious Rise and Inevitable Fall of Hipster Antitrust,” (with Joshua Wright, Elyse Dorsey, and Jan Rybnicek) Arizona State Law Journal, 51(1): 293-369 (2019).


56) “Medicare Secondary Payer and Settlement Delay,” (with Eric Helland) Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 15(2): 356-377 (2018).

55) “What Should Empirical Legal Economists Do?” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 174 (1): 29-33 (2018).

54) “The Logic and Limits of Event Studies in Securities Fraud Litigation,” (with Jill Fisch and Jonah Gelbach) Texas Law Review, 96(3): 553-621 (2018).


53) “The Value of the Right to Exclude: An Empirical Assessment,” (with Gideon Parchomovsky) University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 165(4): 917-966 (2017).

52) “The Wealth of Congress,” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 40(3): 603-638 (2017).


51) “Reducing False Guilty Pleas and Wrongful Convictions Through Exoneree Compensation,” (with Murat Mungan) Journal of Law and Economics, 59(1): 173-189 (2016).

50) “Identifying Criminals’ Risk Preferences,” (with Murat Mungan) Indiana Law Journal, 91(3): 791-821 (2016).

49) “Everything’s Bigger in Texas Except the Medmal Settlements,” (with Tom Baker and Eric Helland) Connecticut Insurance Law Journal, 22(1): 1-46 (2016).

48) “The Effect of Private Police on Crime: Evidence from a Geographic Regression Discontinuity Design,” (with John MacDonald and Ben Grunwald) Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, 179(3): 831-846 (2016).

47) “The Developmental Effect of State Alcohol Prohibitions at the Turn of the Twentieth Century,” (with Mary Evans, Eric Helland, and Ashwin Patel) Economic Inquiry, 54(2): 762-777 (2016).


46) “Preemption in the Rehnquist and Roberts Courts: An Empirical Analysis (with Michael Greve, Michael Petrino, and J.P. Sevilla) Supreme Court Economic Review, 23(1): 353-392 (2015).

45) “The Effect of Any Willing Provider and Freedom of Choice Laws on Prescription Drug Expenditures,”  (with Joshua Wright) American Law and Economics Review, 17(1): 192-213 (2015).

44) “Appellate Caseload and the Switch to Comparative Negligence,”  (with Jef DeMot and Michael Faure) International Review of Law and Economics, 42: 147-156 (2015).

43) “Discounting and Criminals’ Implied Risk Preferences,”  (with Murat Mungan) Review of Law and Economics, 11(1): 19-23 (2015).


42) “Forfeiture of Illegal Gains, Attempts, and Implied Risk Preferences,” (with Murat Mungan) Journal of Legal Studies, 43(1): 137-153 (2014).


41) “Valid Inference in Single-Firm Single-Event Studies,” (with Jonah Gelbach and Eric Helland) American Law and Economics Review, 15(2): 495-541 (2013).

40) “Shleifer’s Failure,” Texas Law Review, 91(4): 899-909 (2013).


39) “The Relationship between Abortion Liberalization and Sexual Behavior: International Evidence,” (with Sven Neelsen and Thomas Stratmann) American Law and Economics Review, 14(2): 457-487 (2012).

38) “Does Anyone Get Stopped at the Gate? An Empirical Assessment of the Daubert Trilogy in the States,” (with Eric Helland) Supreme Court Economic Review, 20 (2012).

37) “The Effect of Contract Regulation on Franchising,” (with Bruce Kobayashi and Larry Ribstein) Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 168(1): 38-53 (2012).


36) “Recessions and the Social Safety Net: The Alternative Minimum Tax as a Counter-Cyclical Fiscal Stabilizer,” (with Brian Galle) Stanford Law Review, 63(1): 187-246 (2010).

35) “The Perils of Empirical Work on Institutions,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 166(1): 166-170 (2010).


34) “Passive Discrimination: When Does It Make Sense to Pay Too Little?” (with Jonah Gelbach and Lesley Wexler) University of Chicago Law Review, 76(2): 797-857 (2009).

33) “Strong Claims and Weak Evidence: Reassessing the Predictive Validity of the IAT,” (with Hart Blanton, James Jaccard, Barbara Mellers, Gregory Mitchell, and Philip Tetlock) Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(3): 567-582 (2009).

32) “Transparency Should Trump Trust: Rejoinder to McConnell and Leibold (2009) and Ziegert and Hanges (2009),” (with Hart Blanton, James Jaccard, Barbara Mellers, Gregory Mitchell, and Philip Tetlock) Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(3): 598-603 (2009).

31) “Federalism, Variation, and State Regulation of Franchise Termination,” (with Bruce Kobayashi and Larry Ribstein) Entrepreneurial Business Law Journal, 3(2): 355-380 (2009).


30) “Agency Costs, Charitable Trusts, and Corporate Control: Evidence From Hershey’s Kiss-Off,” (with Robert Sitkoff) Columbia Law Review, 108(4): 749-838 (2008).

— Eventus output referred to in footnotes 294  and 296

29) “Differential Victimization: Efficiency and Fairness Justifications for the Felony Murder Rule,” (with Nuno Garoupa) Review of Law and Economics, 4(1): 407-418 (2008).

28) “Social Networks, Self Denial, and Median Preferences: Conformity as an Evolutionary Strategy,” (with Francesco Parisi) Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(4): 1319-1327 (2008).

27) “Do Spa Visits Improve Health: Evidence from German Micro Data,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Eastern Economic Journal, 34(3): 364-374 (2008).

26) “Abortion Access and Risky Sex Among Teens: Parental Involvement Laws and Sexually Transmitted Diseases,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 24(1): 2-21(2008).  

— Materials for replication (data files, do file, Stata log, published version, etc. in a .zip file)  


25) “Diabetes Treatments and Moral Hazard,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Journal of Law & Economics, 50(3): 519-538 (2007).

24) “Medical Malpractice Reform and Physicians in High Risk Specialties,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Journal of Legal Studies, 36(S2): S121-S142 (2007).

23) “The Tradeoff Between Regulation and Litigation: Evidence from Insurance Class Actions,” (with Eric Helland) Journal of Tort Law, 1(3): Article 2 (2007).

22) “The Effect of Judicial Expedience on Attorney Fees in Class Actions,” (with Eric Helland) Journal of Legal Studies, 36(1): 171-187 (2007).


21) “Mandatory Waiting Periods for Abortion and Female Mental Health,” Health Matrix, 16(1): 183-208 (2006).

20) “Government Regulation of Irrationality: Moral and Cognitive Hazards,” (with Greg Mitchell) Minnesota Law Review, 90(6): 1620-1663 (2006).

19) “Salvation as a Selective Incentive,” International Review of Law and Economics, 26(1): 15-32 (2006).

18) “The Two Dimensions of Regulatory Competition,” (with Francesco Parisi and Norbert Schulz) International Review of Law and Economics, 26(1): 56-66 (2006).

17) “A Law and Economics Perspective on Terrorism,” (with Francesco Parisi and Nuno Garoupa) Public Choice, 128(1-2): 147-168 (2006).

16) “Subsidizing Addiction: Do State Health Insurance Mandates Increase Alcohol Consumption?,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Journal of Legal Studies, 35(1): 175-198 (2006).

15) “Preemption in the Rehnquist Court: A Preliminary Empirical Assessment,” (with Michael Greve), Supreme Court Economic Review, 14: 43-94 (2006).

14) “Are Mental Health Insurance Mandates Effective?: Evidence from Suicides,” (with Sara Markowitz) Health Economics, 15(1): 83-97 (2006).


13) “Wealth, Utility, and the Human Dimension,” (with Francesco Parisi) NYU Journal of Law & Liberty, 1(1): 590-608 (2005).

12) “The Micro Foundations of Standard Form Contracts: Price Discrimination vs. Behavioral Bias,” Florida State University Law Review: 32(2): 555-569 (2005).

11) “Limited Autocracy,” Review of Law and Economics, 1(2): 293-304 (2005).

10) “Intra-Jurisdictional Tax Competition,” (with Francesco Parisi) Constitutional Political Economy, 16(4): 387-395 (2005).

9) “Using Terror Alert Levels to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime,” (with Alexander Tabarrok) Journal of Law and Economics, 48(1): 267-279 (2005).

8) “Data Watch: Tort-Uring the Data,” (with Alexander Tabarrok and Eric Helland) Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2): 207-220 (2005).

7) “The IOM Report: Too Quick to Diagnose Bias,” (with Sally Satel) Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 48(1): S15-S25 (2005).


6) “Functional Law and Economics: The Search for Value-Neutral Principles of Law Making,” (with Francesco Parisi) Chicago-Kent Law Review, 79(2): 431-450 (2004).

5) “Econometric Analyses of U.S. Abortion Policy: A Critical Review,” Fordham Urban Law Journal, 31: 751-782 (2004).


4) “The Effect of Abortion Legalization on Sexual Behavior: Evidence from Sexually Transmitted Diseases,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Journal of Legal Studies, 32(2): 407-434 (2003).

3) “The Disunity of Unanimity,” (with Francesco Parisi) Constitutional Political Economy, 14(2): 83-94 (2003).


2) “The Differential Calculus of Consent,” (with Francesco Parisi) Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice, 20(2-3): 115-123 (2002).



1) “Do Dollars Make a Difference?: The Relationship Between Expenditures and Test Scores in Pennsylvania’s Public Schools,” American Economist, Vol. 44(1): 81-87 (2000).


Book Contributions, Encyclopedia Entries, Monographs, Reviews etc.


34) “Private Security and Deterrence,” (with John MacDonald) in Handbook on Public and Private Security, Erwin A. Blackstone, Simon Hakim, and Brian Meehan, eds. (New York: Springer, 2023).



33) “Big Tech’s Digital Robber Barons,” Regulation, 44(3): 26-29 (2021).

32) Review of the Literature on Diversity on Corporate Boards, AEI Report (2021).


31) “Is the Digital Economy Too Concentrated?,” Global Antitrust Institute, Report on the Digital Economy (2020).



30) “Empirical Analysis of Fiduciary Law,” (with Max Schanzenbach) Oxford Handbook of Fiduciary Law, Oxford University Press (2019).

29) History of Law and Economics, editor with Henry Butler, Edward Elgar Publishing (2018).


28) “Empirical Analysis of Regulation: The Promise of Field Experiments in China,” Regulatory Reform in China and the EU: A Law and Economics Perspective, Stefan Weishaar, Niels Philipsen, and Wenming Xu, eds. (London: Edward Elgar, 2017).

27) “A Price for Injustice,” (with Murat Mungan) Regulation, 40(2): 12-15 (2017).

26) “Roam if You Want to?” (with Gideon Parchomovsky) Regulation, 40(1): 18-22 (2017).

25) Law and Economics of Federalism, editor, Edward Elgar Publishing (2017).

24) “Empirical Law and Economics,” (with Jonah Gelbach) Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics, Oxford University Press (2017).


23) “Infantilization by Regulation,” (with Greg Mitchell) Regulation, 39(2): 32-37 (2016).

22) “The Value of Training in Quantitative Methods for Judges,” Economic Evidence in EU Competition Law (Intersentia, 2016).






21) “Regulation and Litigation: Complements or Substitutes?” (with Eric Helland) The American Illness: Essays on the Rule of Law, Frank Buckley, ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013).


20) “Why Aren’t Regulation and Litigation Substitutes? An Examination of the Capture Hypothesis,” (with Eric Helland) Regulatory Breakdown: The Crisis of Confidence in U.S. Regulation, Cary Coglianese, ed. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).

19) “Global Justice and Trade,” (with Fernando Teson) Global Justice and International Economic Law, Chios Carmody, Frank Garcia, and John Linarelli, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming 2012).

18) “Mobile Phones and Crime Deterrence: An Underappreciated Link,” (with John MacDonald and Thomas Stratmann) Research Handbook on Criminal Law, Alon Harel and Keith Hylton, eds. (New York: Edward Elgar, 2012).

17) “Fire Suppression Policy, Weather, and Western Wildland Fire Trends: An Empirical Analysis,” (with Jason Johnston) Wildfire: Law, Policy, and Economics, Karen Bradshaw and Dean Lueck, eds. (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 2012).


16) The Empirical Revolution in Law and Economics (The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 2011).

15) “Slim Odds,” (with Eric Helland) Regulation 34(1): 20-23 (2011).

— Reply from David Ludwig and Steven Gortmaker, “Reducing Soda Consumption,” Regulation, 34(2): 2-3 (2011).

— Response from Helland and Klick, Regulation, 34(2): 3 (2011).

14) “Legal Origins and Empirical Credibility,” (with Eric Helland) Does Law Matter?, Michael Faure and Jan Smits, eds. (Cambridge: Intersentia, 2011).

13) “Abortion Access and Risky Sex,” (with Thomas Stratmann) Research Handbook on the Economics of Family Law, Lloyd Cohen and Joshua Wright, eds. (New York: Edward Elgar, 2011).

12) “The Law and Economics of Regulatory Competition,” Production of Legal Rules, Francesco Parisi and Richard Posner, eds. (New York: Edward Elgar, 2011).


11) “The AMT’s Silver Lining,” (with Brian Galle) Regulation, 33(3): 24-29 (2010).

10) “A More Equitable and Efficient Approach to Insuring the Uninsurable,” (with Eric Helland) The Fragmentation of U.S. Health Care: Causes and Solutions, Einer Elhauge, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

9) “Police, Prisons, and Punishment: The Empirical Evidence on Crime Deterrence,” (with Alex Tabarrok) Handbook on the Economics of Crime, Bruce Benson and Paul Zimmerman, eds. (New York: Edward Elgar, 2010).


8) “Terrorism,” (with Nuno Garoupa and Francesco Parisi) Criminal Law and Economics, Nuno Garoupa, ed. (New York: Edward Elgar, 2009).

7) “Functional Law and Economics,” (with Francesco Parisi) Theoretical Foundations of Law and Economics, Mark D. White, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).


6) “What Drives the Passage of Damage Caps?” (with Catherine Sharkey) Empirical  Studies of Judicial Systems, Kuo-Chang Huang, ed. (Institutum Jurisprudentiae, Academia Sinica, 2008).


5) “Empirical Research Strategies,” “Functional Law and Economics,” “Multivariate Methods in Legal Studies,” and “Mathematical Modeling,” Encyclopedia of Law and Society, David Clark, ed. (London: Sage Publications, 2007).


4) The Health Disparities Myth: Diagnosing the Treatment Gap (with Sally Satel): AEI Press, 2006.

3) “Are Doctors Biased?” (with Sally Satel) Policy Review, 136(April & May): 41-54 (2006).







2) “First, Do No Harm …” (with Thomas Stratmann) Regulation, 26(1): 9 (2003).


1) “Drug Re-Importation’s No-Win Solution,” Regulation, 25(1): 6-7 (2002).


Online Essays, Web Symposia etc.

3) Cato Unbound Symposium on the New Paternalism


“The Dangers of Letting Someone Else Decide.”

“Revealing Revealed Preferences.”

2) “Biased Doctors,” (with Sally Satel) National Review Online, February 23, 2006.

1) “Securing the Airways: The Downside to Solidarity,” National Review Online, October 11, 2001.


Policy Reports, Public Interest Comments, White Papers, Etc.


Testimony to Pennsylvania Senate Committee Regarding Medical Malpractice Venue Rule (September 8, 2020).

Comment on Milliman Research Report (Review of Proposed Amendment of Pennsylvania Rules of Civil
Procedure Nos. 1006, 2130, 2156, and 2179) regarding venue in Pennsylvania medical malpractice cases.

Assessing the USDA Report, “Taxing Caloric Sweetened Beverages: Potential Effects on Beverage Consumption, Calorie Intake, and Obesity.”   Original USDA report available here .