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Current & Recent Research at Penn Law

File: [View Document]
Author: Yoo, Christopher S.
Citation: Cyber Espionage or Cyber War?: International Law, Domestic Law, and Self-Protective Measures, in THE LAW OF CYBERWAR: DIGITAL CONFLICTS, KINETIC RESULTS (Claire Finkelstein, Kevin Govern, & Jens David Ohlin eds., Oxford University Press forthcoming 2015).
Date Published: 2015
Date Posted: 02/27/2014
Subjects: Human Rights Law
Law and Criminal Justice
Law and the Global Community
Law, Technology and Communications
Public Law and the Constitution
Keywords: Military Law
Science and Technology
Communications Law
Computer Law
Human Rights Law
International Law
Law and Technology
Scholars have spent considerable effort determining how the law of war (particularly jus ad bellum and jus in bello) applies to cyber conflicts, epitomized by the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Many prominent cyber operations fall outside the law of war, including the surveillance programs that Edward Snowden has alleged were conducted by the National Security Agency, the distributed denial of service attacks launched against Estonia and Georgia in 2007 and 2008, the 2008 Stuxnet virus designed to hinder the Iranian nuclear program, and the unrestricted cyber warfare described in the 1999 book by two Chinese army colonels. Such conduct is instead relegated to the law of espionage and is thus governed almost entirely by domestic law. The absence of an overarching international law solution to this problem heightens the importance of technological self-protective measures.