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Howard F. Chang

Earle Hepburn Professor of Law

Howard Chang

Howard Chang writes on a wide variety of subjects, including immigration policy, international trade, and environmental protection. His publications include ”A Liberal Theory of Social Welfare: Fairness, Utility, and the Pareto Principle” (Yale Law Journal 2000) and “Liberalized Immigration as Free Trade: Economic Welfare and the Optimal Immigration Policy” (University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1997). Continue reading…


  • Immigration Law
  • International Trade
  • Environmental Law


LAW AND ECONOMICS OF IMMIGRATION (Howard Chang ed., Elgar 2015).
[Available Here]

Articles and Book Chapters

Endogenous Decentralization in Federal Environmental Policies, INT'L REV. L. & ECON. 39 (2014) (with Hilary A. Sigman & Leah Goldman Traub).

An Empirical Analysis of Cost Recovery in Superfund Cases: Implications for Brownfields and Joint and Several Liability, 11 J. OF EMPIRICAL LEGAL STUD. 477 (2014) (with Hilary Sigman).

The Effect of Allowing Pollution Offsets with Imperfect Enforcement, 101 AM. ECON. REV. 268 (2011) (with Hilary Sigman).

The Immigration Paradox: Alien Workers and Distributive Justice, in CITIZENSHIP, BORDERS, AND HUMAN NEEDS (Rogers M. Smith ed., 2011).
[Available Here]

Implications of Globalization and Trade for Water Quality in Transboundary Rivers, in GLOBAL CHANGE: IMPACTS ON WATER AND FOOD SECURITY 97 (Claudia Ringler et al. eds., 2010) (with Hilary Sigman).

The Environment and Climate Change: Is International Migration Part Of the Problem Or Part Of the Solution?, 20 FORDHAM ENVTL. L. REV. 341 (2010).

Immigration Restriction as Redistributive Taxation: Working Women and the Costs of Protectionism in the Labor Market, 5 J. L. ECON. & POL'Y 1 (2009)

Guest Workers and Justice in a Second-Best World, 34 U. DAYTON L. REV. 3 (2008) (symposium contribution).

The Economics of International Labor Migration and the Case for Global Distributive Justice in Liberal Political Theory, 41 CORNELL INT'L L.J. 1 (2008).

The Effect of Joint and Several Liability Under Superfund on Brownfields, 27 INT'L REV. L. & ECON. 363 (2007).

The Economic Impact of International Labor Migration: Recent Estimates and Policy Implications, 16 TEMP. POL. & CIV. RTS. L. REV. 321 (2007).

Cultural Communities in a Global Labor Market: Immigration Restrictions as Residential Segregation, 2007 U. CHI. L.F. 321 (symposium contribution), reprinted in 28 IMMIGR. & NAT'LITY L. REV. 453 (Gabriel J. Chin, ed., 2007); CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION: IMMIGRATION, SOCIAL WELFARE, GLOBAL GOVERNANCE 78 (Andrew C. Sobel ed., 2009).

Risk Regulation, Endogenous Public Concerns, and the Hormones Dispute: Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself?, 77 S. CAL. L. REV. 743 (2004).

Immigration and the Workplace: Immigration Restrictions as Employment Discrimination, 78 CHI.-KENT L. REV. 291 (2003), reprinted in 24 IMMIGR. & NATIONALITY L. REV. 445 (2003)

Any Non-Welfarist Method of Policy Assessment Violates the Pareto Principle: A Comment, 111 J. POL. ECON. 1382 (2003) (with Marc Fleurbaey & Bertil Tungodden).

Public Benefits and Federal Authorization for Alienage Discrimination by the States, 58 N.Y.U. ANN. SURV. AM. L. 357 (2002).

Liberal Ideals and Political Feasibility: Guest-Worker Programs as Second-Best Policies, 27 N.C.J. INTL L. & COM. REG. 465 (2002).

A Liberal Theory of Social Welfare: Fairness, Utility, and the Pareto Principle, 110 YALE L.J. 173 (2000).

The Possibility of a Fair Paretian, 110 YALE L.J. 251 (2000).

Incentives to Settle Under Joint and Several Liability: An Empirical Analysis of Superfund Litigation, 29 J. LEGAL STUD. 205 (2000) (with Hilary Sigman).

The Effect of Offer-of-Settlement Rules on the Terms of Settlement, 28 J. LEGAL STUD. 489 (1999) (with Lucian Arye Bebchuk).

Migration as International Trade: The Economic Gains from the Liberalized Movement of Labor, 3 UCLA J. INT'L L. & FOREIGN AFF. 371 (1998-99), reprinted in 20 IMMIGR. & NATIONALITY L. REV. 339 (1999), excerpted in STEPHEN H. LEGOMSKY, IMMIGRATION AND REFUGEE LAW AND POLICY 281 (3d ed. 2002).

Liberalized Immigration as Free Trade: Economic Welfare and the Optimal Immigration Policy, 145 U. PA. L. REV. 1147 (1997).

An Analysis of Fee-Shifting Based on the Margin of Victory: On Frivolous Suits, Meritorious Suits, and the Role of Rule 11, 25 J. LEGAL STUD. 371 (1996) (with Lucian Arye Bubchuk).

More publications can be found here.

Research Areas

  • Immigration Policy
  • International Trade
  • Environmental Policy
  • Law and Economics


Penn Law - Earle Hepburn Professor of Law (2006- ); Professor of Law (1999-2006)

Law Clerk to Hon. Ruth Bader Ginsburg, U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, Washington, DC (1988-89)

University of Southern California - Professor of Law (1997-99); Associate Professor of Law (1994-97); Assistant Professor of Law (1992-94)

Board of Directors, American Law & Economics Association (2004-07)

Visiting Professor – Georgetown, Stanford, Harvard, New York University, University of Michigan, University of Chicago

Professional Activities

Planning Committee, Immigration Law Teachers Workshop (biennial conference), June 2012

Reviewer, American Law and Economics Association annual meeting, May 2012

Program Committee, American Law and Economics Association annual meeting, May 2010; Area Organizer, International Law panels, American Law and Economics Association annual meeting, May 2008

Board of Directors, American Law and Economics Association, 2004-2007


  • Immigration Law
  • International Trade Regulation
  • International Environmental Law

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